In contrast to many psychological theories that focus on abnormal behaviour or negative experiences, psychologists Abraham Marlow’s worked centered almost exclusively on the positive side of the human experiences. His well known hierarchy of needs presents a theory of motivation that focuses on the importance of personal growth and self-actualization. Its a content theory of inspiration. Maslow’s theory consisted of two main parts the classification of human needs and the contemplation of how the classes are contected to each other. This theory outlines the hierarchy of needs in human beings. These needs range from the most basic, phsychologists needs to the least basic which are self-esteem needs. In the between one requires safety and security as well as love belonging. It also states that once our lower-level needs are met we are prompted to satisfy our higher-level needs. The primary flaws with the Marlows theory of needs is that the needs order does not and cannot encompass all people and cultures. Based on where you are the hierarchy may shuffle.
As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship, and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person in order to achieve individual potential. •Types of Needs:
Abraham Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. Maslow termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person. Five Levels of the Hierarchy of Needs:
There are five different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: 1.Physiological Needs:
These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air, food, and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met.
These include needs for safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health care, safe neighborhoods, and shelter from the environment.
These include needs for belonging, love, and affection. Maslow described these needs as less basic than physiological and security needs. Relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments, and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community, or religious groups.
After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment.
This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others, and interested fulfilling their potential. •Criticisms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
While some research showed some support for Maslow's theories, most research has not been able to substantiate the idea of a needs hierarchy. Wahba and Bridwell reported that there was little evidence for Maslow's ranking of these needs and even less evidence that these...