Learning Team B
February 18, 2013
To learn more about the field of psychology it is first important for us to know more about psychology’s past, the psychologist who advanced this field of study and the theories that we are still building on or learning from to this day. Four men who made a great impact on the field of psychology, who may have worked together, and who may have even had drastically different theoretical positions are Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and William James. In the following paper we will discuss these men and their passions as well as their differences. Psychoanalysis was the theoretical position that Sigmund Freud built and spent most of his life adding to. Psychoanalysis is a way to investigate the mind, especially of the unconscious mind; a therapy of neurosis inspired from the above method; a new stand-alone discipline who is based on the knowledge acquired from applying the investigation method and clinical experiences (freudfile, 2002-2013). Freud is the psychologist who we have to thank for most people believing therapy involves laying on a couch because during free association that is what Freud asked his patients to do, relax, and start talking (Goodwin, 2008). Freud was not the first to speak of the unconscious mind, but he is believed to be the one who made it famous.
Freud, who is known for dream analysis and metapsychology, is also responsible for the ego, the id, and the superego. The ego, Freud believed, was conscious and unconscious lying in the center of our personality trying to maintain balance between the id and the superego (Goodwin, 2008). The id is our basic instincts, sex and aggression, whereas the superego would be considered our moral compass, both fight for what they need and contend with reality (Goodwin, 2008). The id is made up of sex and aggression because these two instincts do make up much of our lives and Freud devoted most of his life to exploring this.
Sigmund Freud’s perspective concerning the causes and nature of human psychological functioning can be summed up in those two words: sex and aggression. Though most of Freud’s work has been disproven or scarred by the Freudian myths that surround him and his work, it is hard to not admire the advancements that have been made because of him. Even when his work was proven false, it meant that psychologists were examining his theories and possibly forming new theories of their own that will advance us even further into the future of psychology. Freud's years of work put a new way of thinking into the head of society, and challenged the assumptions and suppositions of a changing world (Stevenson, 1998). Carl Gustav Jung made major contributions toward psychoanalysis, but it was not until after he abandoned Freud and psychosexuality that Jung would do his most revolutionary, controversial, and extraordinary work (www.infoplease.com ). Jung was a creator of modern psychology, which explains how the human mind facilitates conversations between unconscious types of energies that move within the inside of all of us. The Jungian theory is based on two separate dimensions of human unconsciousness with just one persona, and one archetype of collective human unconsciousness (www.cgjungpage.org, 02/16/13). Personal unconsciousness is any forgotten or repressed type of content that has actually been in a person’s material or mental life. Archetypes of material in the unconsciousness humans have are described as being patterns, symbols, and specific images in which a person can see in their fantasies and dreams that also can appear to them as a theme of a certain religion or mythology in our unconscious (www.psychological-musings.blogspot.com, 02/28/11). The archetypes of images in the unconscious, Jung theorized, mold the human unconscious personality, and this bond together with certain instincts to drive the human psyche. Jung described the human consciousness...