1. A phoneme and it’s allophones
The phoneme is a minimal linguistic unit which can’t be divided lineally into smaller units, it’s potentially connected with meaning and is realized in speech in its allophones. Each language has its own peculiar (свойственную только ей) system of phonemes. And each phoneme exists in its allophones. We can call a phoneme an abstract unit. We can’t pronounce a phoneme. If we pronounce it – it becomes an allophone. There are as many allophones of a certain phoneme as the number of its positions in speech. (Ex. [ι] ) The famous English phonetician Daniel Jones named phonemes together with their allophones a family. (Ex.[w] – 1.[w] (wıt∫), 2.[w ], [kw ], [sw ] F.e: kwik, swim) The allophones are often called the members of the family. Every sound has its own family. The ability of members of one of the same phoneme to exist in different phonetic position is called complementary (взаимодополнительная) distribution. The total sum of set of all the allophones of one of the same phoneme constitutes the full distribution of this phoneme. There are 44 or 49 phonemes in the English language. The number of phonemes depends (44 or 49): on method of investigation. The relations between a phoneme and its allophones are that of the whole and its parts. Kinds and types of allophones
There are different kinds of allophones. For native speaker of English a certain set (набор) of allophones is common. They should correspond (соотносить) to the proper (правильным) literary pronunciation (public school pronunciation England or the pronunciation of educated people in southern England). These allophones are called obligatory (обязательными). The destroying or incorrect realization of obligatory allophones is considered(рассматриваться) to be a strong accent (делать акцент). Among obligatory allophones there are different classes. The 1st class – primary or principal (главные) allophones. A principal allophone exists in the position of the least influence of neighbouring (соседствующих) sounds. The second peculiarity (хар.черта) of this allophones is that it is the only realized (реализуют) member of phonemic family. We call it principle because it’s very important for our teaching practice. The 2nd type is called combinatorial (комбинаторные) allophones. These are the allophones which depend upon (от) the neighbouring speech sounds. (Ex. [s w], slip, swim) – is combinatorial allophone. A very good example of combinatorial allophones is system of vowels. (Все гласные в английском языке зависят от соседних согласных) The 3rd class is positional allophones. They appear as a result of the different positions in a word (initial or final). (Ex. [ l ] light and [l ] dark; [ ] and [ ]) F.e. , t ). Sometimes we have progressive influence (препоследний влияет на последний)(Ex. [ tr i]) and regressive influence (последний влияет на предпоследний) (Ex.[ten θ]). Regressive influence is more often, because of a human nature. Very often various manifestations (проявления) of a phoneme can be the result of individual peculiarities (хар.черт) of speakers. Every person possesses (обладает) his/her own timbre and other acoustic characteristics. The 4th kind of individual realizations is the so-called a defective speech, which is the result of an incorrect speech bringing-up. The third case of the specific realization of the phoneme is “free variation”: it means that a phoneme has differentiate (различается) being in one of the same position of the word. The 5th kind of phonetic realization is called a facultative (случайный) variant of the phoneme. It’s an additional (дoполнительная) phoneme, which is usually not registered in the phonemic system of the language. The 6th kind is called an unstable (неустойчивая) phonetic realization.F.e.: шкап/шкаф, калоши/галоши. Translate /s./z/
2.The establishing the phonemic function structure of a Language The first step of this establishing...