Theoretical Perspective of Local Government

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Theoretical perspective of Local government By Adnan ul Haq

Introduction:
In the process of decision making, the intensification by the participation of masses and democratization’s process are two essential aspects that defend the local government’s existence. Without local government’s system it is not possible to consider any political system to be complete and entirely democratic.

The two-fold essentialities (purposes) that local government serves are (a) supplying goods and services come under administrative purpose, (b) the representation and the involvement of masses in locating particular public need and objectivity to understand how these needs can be met. The administration and representation at local levels inside the structure of local government is connected and formulated by the process of representatives at local government. For the enhancement of creating a better understanding about the local government’s structure and functions, it is essential to elaborate and define local government and create awareness about local government values and democracy. The importance and the essentiality of local government will be concentrated on by keeping in mind the aspects of local government so that the attentions are drawn towards the distinctive local government’s structure as the fundamental framework of the local government is formed by the local government’s administrative structure where the determination and implementation of public policy take place at local level. Hence the attentions are directed towards the councils’ composition and activities performed by these councils.

Defining a local government:
As an element of decentralization, local government is a result of devolution. Olowu (1988; 12) states: in the context of literature, there are two advances to define the local government. In aspect of comparative studies, under the central government, all those national structures are regarded as central government. In the second approach, the specifics and particular characteristics that determines local government in more circumspect manner. These distinguished features mainly focus on five following aspects: (1) legal personality, (2) localness, (3) effective participation by citizens, (4) extensive budgetary and employing self-sufficiency in regard to bounded control from central authority, and (5) particular powers to execute a variety of functions. These attributes are significant in separating it from the different forms of institutions at local level and furthermore, it makes certain that organizational effectiveness is maintained at a prompt rate.

Robson (1937: 574) elaborates local government from the perspective of legality as: “In broad categorization, local government may engage the formation of a protective, community that is non sovereign and contains the legal rights and essential institution to articulate its internal associations. The prevalence of authorities at local level with authority to perform without external involvement and control along with the local community’s participation in the administration of its own affairs are assumed in turn of those regulations”.

Local government is defined by Gomme (1987: 1-2) as:
“sub part of the entire government of a nation or states is regarded as local government that is managed and administered by the system subordinate to authority of state but independently elected of the state’s authority control, by competent persons local, or containing properties in specific localities, which regions have been structured through common interests and common histories by the communities”

The views of both Robson and Gomme have strongly argued that local government are not entirely free from the control of the central government. This indicates that the power and authority enjoyed by the local government is to relative extent and it is because of the responsibilities are split among national and local government for the provision of...
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