Theoretical Framework in Nursing Process - Elements, Approaches and Strategies of Theory Development

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Pocholo N. Isidro R.N.
Philippine Women's University, Master of Arts in Nursing

Theoretical Framework for Nursing Practice – Module 3

A. What are the 5 types of concepts and its characteristics? Give an example of each type.

1. Primitive Concepts are those that have a culturally shared meaning (Walker and Avant, 2005 as cited by Peterson and Bredow, 2009) or are those that are introduced as new in the theory (Meleis, 1997 as cited by Peterson and Bredow, 2009). For instance, in culturally derived concepts, a color is usually primitive because it cannot be defined except by giving examples of a color different from the original color. Grass and leaves would be examples of green while grapes and roses would be examples of not green.

2. Concrete concepts are those that exist in a in a spatial-temporal reality (Peterson and Bredow, 2009). They can be defined in terms of primitive concepts. Grass, leaves, grapes and roses would all be examples of concrete concepts. In nursing, touched used by the nurse would be considered a concrete concept (Peterson and Bredow, 2009). Kim (2010) further defined it as a class of phenomena that exist in certain people in the world and gave the concept of “quadriplegia of Korean war veterans” as an example.

3. Abstract concepts can be defined by primitive or concrete concepts but are not limited by time of space. According to Kim (2010), they refer to general cases. Example of this type of concept is the concept of numbers which only has symbolic meanings without specific empirical contents. Illness, disability and communication could be identified as abstract concepts that would be of interest to nursing (Kim, 2000; Peterson and Bredow, 2009).

4. Property concepts are those that deal with the state of things. (Peterson and Bredow, 2009). Such examples of concept are: state of grief, whether or not a patient has abdominal pain, what the anxiety level is, or what the patient knows about emergency bleeding. Kim (2010) cited the concept of stress as a property concept that is expressed according to the amount, extent and type of stress. In contrast, others have also used in a way by which the phenomenon is identified as an action. In this case, it becomes a process concept.

5. Process concepts are those that relate to the way things happen. Grieving as a means by which an individual deals with loss in an example of this type of concept. Other examples include: how a person learns to take blood pressure, what a patient is experiencing when he say “I don’t care”, or what becomes of the digitoxin a patient takes; all of which are concerned with the nature of occurrence (Kim, 2010).

B. Do a literature-search on sexual harassment in clinical setting (at least two). What theory did the researcher use? What were the recommendations given? Give your comments/reactions on the recommendations.

During my literature search, I stumbled upon a research on “Sexual Harassment of Female Doctors by Patients” (Phillips and Schneider, 1993) which employed the feminist theory – analysis of gender inequality and promotion of women’s rights, interests and issues (Brabeck and Brown, 1997). From the article, it was stated that substantial numbers of women (25-75 percent) in work settings are subjected to sexual harassment. It was further indentified that victims of sexual harassment are almost always women attributing it in our society which shows that women generally lack power relative to men. The study primarily focused on the experiences of female physicians who, though they share the power of their profession with their male counterparts, share with other women the vulnerability of their sex. The results suggest that sexual harassment of female physicians is widespread and troublesome (amounting up to 77 percent). The high response rate and the length of responses, as well as the participants' interest in discussing the problem further...
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