Philippine Women's University, Master of Arts in Nursing
Theoretical Framework for Nursing Practice – Module 2
A. Explain/describe the 4 phases of theorizing:
1. Factor-isolating theory – This first phase of development can be further subdivided into two major activities: first is naming or labeling, second is the classifying or categorizing. The basic activity of labeling concerns itself with the recognition of an individual factor or aspect, defining what it really is and not to be mistaken for something else, thus the term “factor-isolating”. Names may be chosen based on a variety of reasons such as by function, by description or by the name of the one who invented or discovered that certain object. After labeling is done, the objects are then classified/sorted/grouped or categorized according to some commonalities or a unifying factor. Then one can further refine the grouping by developing hierarchy in the different categories (Bevis, 1989).
2. Factor-relating theory – While the first phase is only concerned with the identification and classification of factors, this phase now involves determining the relationship between two factors. Like the one before, this second phase is also subdivided into two activities: depicting/describing and relating factors. This level depicts or describes how one single named and classified thing, also known as a factor, relates to another factor. Aside from determining, this level of theory also describes relationships to other factors. In other words, it describes the “natural history” of any given subject. A simple example is the anatomy or any from the descriptive sciences. (Bevis, 1989)
3. Situation-relating theory – This third phase now attempts to describe the relationships between situations in a way that allows for prediction. This level is now concerned with causal relationships with causal-connecting statements as a key ingredient that gives the basis for prediction. Prediction on the other hand is defined as any particular statement of consequential between two concepts. This level also reveals the conditions, circumstances, or behavior that might promote or inhibit the occurrence of another situation. To put in simpler terms, this phase simply states that if “a” occurs, “b” will also occur. (Bevis, 1989)
4. Situation-producing theory – Also known as the goal-incorporating theory and prescriptive theory, this level specifies precisely how situations were described, depicted and predicted in the lower levels can be produced or made to occur. It has several important ingredients, first is conceptualization and goal-statement, the other is conceptualization and articulation of prescriptions. Prescriptions are directives or commands directed toward the goal and specifically devise for a particular agent or agents. The agent’s judgment is used in selecting the content of the directives that follow a survey list. Most of nursing now uses problem-solving, decision-making as a tool that enables the agent to have good judgment. (Bevis, 1989)
B. Look for other viewpoints on nursing metaparadigm. Include the theorist explanations. Look for viewpoints of theorists not included in your module. You can look for modern day theorists or even our local theorists in the Philippines.
Fawcett (1984) suggests that the metaparadigm of nursing includes: person, environment, health and nursing. She further suggests that the total discipline is contained by a concern for these four elements. These elements must be taken into consideration in the study of nursing and anything beyond them is of no concern (Fawcett as cited by Basford and Slevin, 2003).
However, other theorists such as Meleis (1997) and Parse (1992) suggested that including nursing in the metaparadigm has made it redundant. Because as the metaparadigm is descriptive of nursing as a discipline, nursing cannot be a part of it; it is in fact the...