Theoretical Framework in Nursing

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Theoretical Framework in Nursing

ELEMENTS, APPROACHES AND STRATEGIES OF THEORY DEVELOPMENT

Basic Elements In Theory Building

Relationship among THEORY, RESEARCH and PRACTICE

PRACTICE
RESEARCH
THEORY

* Relationship between THEORY and RESEARCH

Research validates and modifies theory.

* Relationship between THEORY and PRACTICE

Theory guides practice.

* Relationship between RESEARCH and PRACTICE

Research is the key to the development of a discipline.

Approaches To Theory Development

* Theory – Practice – Theory

An existing theory (non-nursing) that can help describe and explain a phenomenon, but the theory is not complete or not completely developed for nursing.

* Practice – Theory

Existing theories are not useful in describing the phenomenon of interest; theory is derived from clinical situations.

* Research – Theory

Development of theory is based on research; theories evolve from replicated and confirmed research findings.

* Theory – Research Theory

Theory drives the research questions, the result of the research informs and modifies the theory. Concept Development

CONCEPT
Term that refers to phenomena that occur in nature or in thought

TYPES OF CONCEPT

* ABSTRACT – not clearly observable
* CONCRETE – directly observable

Example:

Abstract Concept| Concrete Concept|
Social System| Nurse – patient – family – caregiver | Telemetry| Electrocardiogram / Holter Monitor|

* VARIABLE / CONTINUOUS – permits classification of dimension of a phenomena * NON-VARIABLE / DISCRETE – identifies categories or classes of characteristics

Example:

* THEORETICAL – gives meaning to a term in context of a theory and permits any reader to assess validity of the definition. * OPERATIONAL – tells how the concept is linked to concrete situations and describes a set of procedures that will be performed to assign a value for the concept.

Example:

Concept| Theoretical Definition| Operational Definition| Body Temperature| Homeothermic range of one’s internal environment maintained by the thermoregulatory system of the human body| Degree of temperature measured by the rectal thermometer taken for one minute| Heart Failure| Inadequate cardiac function to meet circulatory demands| Stage of heart failure measured by the NYHA classification|

Concept Analysis / Concept Development

Rigorous process of bringing clarity to the definition of the concept used in science

Purpose of Concept Development
* Clarifying, recognizing and defining concepts that describe the phenomena

Components of a Theory

1. Purpose
2. Concepts and Conceptual Definition
3. Theoretical Statements
4. Structures and Linkages
5. Assumptions
6. Models

THEORY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION

Definition and Purpose of Theory Evaluation

Theory Evaluation

Process of systematically examining a theory

Criteria for Theory Evaluation

Examination of the theory’s:
* Origins
* Meaning
* Logical Adequacy
* Usefulness
* Generalizability
* Testability

Ultimate Goal of Theory Evaluation

Determine the potential contribution of the theory to scientific knowledge.

Process of Theory Evaluation

* Theory Description – initial step in the evaluation process; the works of a theorist are reviewed, with a focus on the historical context of the theory.

* Theory Analysis – second phase of evaluation process; systematic process of objectively examining the content, structure and function of a theory.

* Theory Evaluation / Theory Critique – final step of the process; assesses the theory’s potential contribution to the discipline’s knowledge base.

Analysis Criteria for Grand Nursing Theories

* Background of the Theorist
A review of the background of the theorist is likely to reveal the foundations of the theorist’s ideas. * Philosophical Underpinnings of the...
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