American Intercontinental University
Using the theoretical framework from Sekaran’s book, this paper will examine the relationship between outsourcing, employee attitudes toward their employers, and the standard employer-employee relationship. This paper will describe the definitions of key terms, employee attitudes and their origins and the traditional employer-employee relationship. The Scientific Research Design will also help to further understand the process of analysis that should be followed.
Theoretical Framework and Scientific Research Design Addressing the Effect of Outsourcing on the Traditional Employer-Employee Relationship Introduction
The hypothesis statement used for this paper is: Outsourcing has an impact on the traditional employer-employee relationship. The background information has been discussed in previous assignments and analyzed to determine whether a relationship even exists. The literature review concluded that a relationship does exist and the null hypothesis was generated using that information. In this assignment, the theoretical framework and Scientific Research Design will be outlined using the Sekaran & Bougie (2009) text. Theoretical Framework
Within this framework, the dependent variable is the traditional employer-employee relationship. This dependent variable is influenced by outsourcing, the independent variable. Workers’ attitudes towards their employer act as an intervening variable and two moderating variables exist and act upon the intervening variable. The type of outsourcing and the communication between employer and employee are considered the moderating variables and will be explained below. The origins of outsourcing began in the second half of the 20th century and found its inception as a quest for increased profitability (Kostopoulos & Bozionelos, 2010). Corporations were trying to focus on the core strengths within the company while achieving a higher ROI. According to Conlin (2000) corporate business was also looking for “fluid, nimble workforces that can grow and shrink according to the demands of the global marketplace.” (para. 3) Outsourcing appeared to provide the answer. Outsourcing acts as the independent variable in this framework; as a change in the employer-employee relationship is associated with outsourcing that exists in corporate business. The dependent variable is the traditional employer-employee relationship. The traditional relationship has been one that an employee enters into an expressed or implied contract of hire to work for another person or organization. Under this contract, the employer has the right to control the details of work performance (Garner & Black, 2011). There has been a shift in this standard toward a free-lance workforce. These employees now work for themselves and subcontract to organizations who pay top dollar for their skills. These employees have taken matters into their own hands and demanded more for their skills. These free-lancers are writing their own job descriptions, demanding a better quality of life, and getting paid more money for the same job they did as employees of an organization. The intervening variable in this framework is the attitudes of the workers toward this shift to outsourcing. Employee attitudes toward their employer seem to have played an integral part in the shift toward a free-lance workforce. The type of outsourcing and communication to the employee regarding any outsourcing plans had an effect on the employee’s attitudes. These two concepts serve as moderating variables on the attitudes of the employee (the intervening variable). Outsourcing in general causes some negative feelings towards employers. Kostopoulos and Bozionelos recognized three types of...