REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter includes a review of related literatures and studies conducted by both local and foreign researchers, that the writer considers relevant to the study. Definitions of Leadership
Bass (1981) accepted the view of leadership as an interaction between members of a group. Leaders are agents of change, persons whose acts affect other people more than other people’s acts affect them. Kanter (1983) defined leadership as the existence of people with power to mobilize others and to set constraints. Misumi (1985) wrote: Leadership is understood as the role behaviour of a specific group member, who, more than other members, exerts some kind of outstanding, lasting, and positive influence on fulfilling the group’s functions of problem solving or goal achievement and group maintenance. Weiss (1986) pinpointed the concept of leadership as the top level executive and his dominant coalition of the organization which is invested with the power, status, and resources to manipulate, interpret, and negotiate constraints and resources into policy. Kellerman (1984) defined leadership as the process by which one individual consistently exerts more impact than others on the nature and direction of group activity. Gardner (1986) waffled at the end of his definition by attaching the last phrase: leadership is the process of persuasion and example by which an individual induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader’s purposes. Sergiovanni (1989), an influential leadership scholar in education, defined leadership as the process of persuasion by which a leader induce followers to act in a manner that enhances the leaders purposes or shared purposes. Two more recent books on leadership have been based on military leaders, and they promote the same understanding of leadership. Roberts (1989) considered leadership as the thing that wins the battles. Bailey (1988) an anthropologist, defined...
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