There are many different ways to interpret the theology of grace. In this paper, I will be discussing four major theologians who have the most popular insights on grace. These theologians include Augustine, Aquinas, Luther, and Rahner who all have their own unique perspective on grace. All of their theories seem to intertwine with one another but each individual one has a different twist that makes them slightly different.
The first theologian I’m going to discuss is Augustine. Augustine was known as the ‘Father of Grace.’ He believed that all human nature is in disorder due to universal sin of Adam and Eve. According to Augustine, sin is passed on by sexual acts, even if a married couple engaged in sexual actions it was still considered a sin. He held in the idea of Massa Damnata which means that everyone is damned due to Adam and Eve. Augustine thought that only a few chosen would be elected in that to receive the grace of perseverance of God will be saved, also known as double predestinations.
Next is Aquinas, a student of Aristotle. He tried to bring theology and philosophy together by using the science of philosophy into theology explanation. He believed that before Original Sin, grace is a central or ontological change of nature to the supernatural. Grace is added to nature and is a disposition to the end glory. Then after Original Sin, grace involves a corrupt nature through Adam and Eve being healed and the healed nature being elevated to reach the supernatural. He thought that grace is medicinal. Grace is a personal relationship, not just a thing, in the life of the Trinity. A graced person was raised into the divine life. Aquinas believed in a Beatific Vision which consisted of two planes – nature and super nature. It was only possible to achieve when graced is added to nature and a person will have a mental experience and encounter happiness.
Luther is the next theologian; he was a Roman Catholic and an...