Themes of Biology

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Leaf anatomy, food for plants and animals, plant functions, and plant and animal cells are all subjects that were highly mentioned throughout the first quarter. The theme of Energy Transfer is prominent in all of these topics. The Interdependence in Nature is also a theme that comes up especially in plant functions, plant and animal cells, and leaf anatomy. Although there were many different sub-themes after many experiments, research, and discussion in class, I find that the two main themes that were talked about this quarter are Energy Transfer and the Interdependence in Nature.

The theme of Energy Transfer is very important when it comes to both plants’ and animals’ survival. Without energy transfer plants and animals would not be able to gain energy from the food they eat or the sunlight they absorb. Energy transfer is the process of converting one type of energy into another so that it can be used by the organism. For example, when we looked at how plants get energy we say that plants’ main source of energy is sunlight. But, we noticed that light energy cannot be directly used by the plant. So, using the process of Photosynthesis plants can effectively turn light energy into “usable” or kinetic energy. This process consists of two sub-processes, light dependent and light independent. In a plant cell there is an organelle called the chloroplast. In each plant cell there are tons of chloroplasts, and in these chloroplasts there are little thylakoids which are little green disks. The thick skin of the thylakoid is called the grana which is where the light dependent sub-process occurs. Basically, light energy is used to power electrons which after going through an electron transport chain are combined with ADP and NADH+ to create ATP and NADPH which are usable energy. Then this energy becomes an input of the light independent process which takes place in the stroma.CO2 and the two sources of energy enter the Calvin cycle (light independent) and come out as...
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