The World History: Study Guide

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  • Topic: Pope, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Crusades
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World History Notes
April 21, 2010

Europe in Its Adolescence – Crusades
- Concept of Crusade
- Why people went on Crusade
o Religious Zeal – Deus Lo Volt!
o Primogeniture and Land
o Papal Authority

Crusades: The Beginning
- Papal Reformers
o Monasticism
- The Council of Clermont – 1095
o Urban II – France
▪ He would create a cause that would gain support (money and revenue) for the church ▪ At the council, they talked about issues that the church need to reform. ▪ At the end of the council, Urban II made a tremendous speech about the Christians who were having problems by living under Muslim rule. ▪ He wanted, and eventually got the French nobility, and other nobility to support his crusade. • This idea took hold to strongly. There were those that heard of the idea of a crusade, and then they took off on their own. - The Peoples Crusade

o Rag-tag groups of Christians took part in a crusade lead by Peter the Hermit o Peter the Hermit
▪ Smelly, ugly, but a great speaker. He gathered groups and mobs around him o Walter Sansavoir
▪ Peter’s aid
o Slaughter of the Innocents
▪ Jewish Communities were accused of being treasonous, and were slaughtered.

First Crusade
- Waves of Crusaders
o 1st – peoples crusade
o 2nd – Godfrey of Bouillon, Baldwin of Bouillon Bohemond of Taronto, Raymond of St. Gilles o Fall of Jerusalem
▪ Summer 1099
o Muslim Reaction
▪ Saljuq Shock

Latin Kingdoms
- Establishment of Crusader Kingdoms
o County of Edessa
o Principality of Antioch
o County of Tripoli
o Kingdom of Jerusalem
- Cultural Exchanges
o Assimilation
o Usamah B. Munquidh

Later Crusades
- Muslim Counter-attack
o Zengi
- European Counter-Counter Attack: a.k.a. Second Crusade (total failure) - Muslim Counter-Counter-Counter-Attack
o Saladin and the battle of Hattin (Saladin defeats the Frankish nights) - 3rd Crusade
o Richard the Lion-Hearted, etc.
▪ The English king and French king went on crusade, which also was a failure ▪ Jerusalem was still in the hands of the Muslims
- 4th Crusade
o Lead by Innocent the Third
▪ Called for the crusade, which was poorly managed.
o Crusaders and the Venetians
▪ Deal was that the crusaders would be able to pay off the credit they owed for all the equipment they gathered for the 4th crusade by attacking Constantinople o 1204 – The Capture of Constantinople

100 – Count’em – Years War
- Monarchies in Europe
o HRE, France, England
- “The Lion in Winter” Case Study
o Henry II Plantagenet; Eleanor of Aquitaine (very rich provinces of France) o English Dukes of Gascony
o Philip VI of France vs. King Edward III of England (a.k.a. The Duke of Gascony) ▪ He basically ceases Gascony, but King Edward didn’t want this, so now there’s a war between two monarchs in these provinces in France.

God’s Help in War
- “Class” Warfare
o Cavalry = Knights = Nobility
o Infantry = Peasants = Commoners
- Hearing voices
o Joan of Arch heard voices that helped her lead to winning the war o Henry V at Agincourt (1415)
o Charles the Dauphin
o Joan of Arc
▪ Maid of Orleans
▪ From Inquisition Fuel to Saint
• Joan was found guilty of witchcraft and was burned at the stake. • In later centuries, she was made a saint

World History Notes
April 26, 2010

Popes on the Run
- Gregory VII & Innocent III Review
- Avignon Papacy
o Boniface III and Philip IV (1285-1314)
1. These two confronted each other, and it would seem there would be a replay of the issue between Gregory and Innocent. 2. Philip needed money, so he began to tax the clergy (which is a definite “no no”) 3. When Boniface learned, he got ready to excommunicate Philip...
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