May 18, 2010
Chapter One - The West Struggles and Eastern Empires Flourish (1300-1500) Economics and Social Misery Summary
The population explosion made it hard to feed all. More cropland was cultivated, but that meant less grazing land, which reduced livestock. Then poor weather depleted crops further, bringing famine. The Black plague came and continued to spread taking millions of lives. The desperate people blamed the Jews and others for plague, resulting in thousands being killed. After the plague there was a shortage of labor which brought on restricted and unfair practices in labor. This resulted in a revolt. Imperial Papacy Besieged
The position of pope lost prestige, the people’s confidence and moral authority in their division. People were split by controversy as disputed papal elections brought several popes in power, creating the Great Schism. People were disenchanted and wanted reform. More Destruction: One Hundred Year War
England and France went to war for two reasons 1) Economics and 2) Land. The English had superior weapons and the French had numbers. The English defeated the French and wanted claim to land. The French came back and drove England out. Henry V got allies and defeated France only to be defeated after Joan of Arc rallied the French, and the throne was taken back. Responses to the Disruption of Medieval.
The response to these changes was, people found new ways, ideas and direction. New views on faith and reason emerged. Scientific observation became of interest. And intellectuals started looking at things in a new way. Empires in the East
New empires in the east dominated the next several hundred years. The Mongols expanded their Eastern Universalism from China to Moscow, with a diversity of people and religions. The Ottoman Empire brought Turks with Muslim influence. Another rising empire was Russia with Ivan I (moneybags) funding growth and overthrowing the Mongolian rule. (2008) Chapter One Questions
Why did the popes take so long to condemn the actions of the massacre of the Jews? “By the fall of 134 the rumor was current that these deaths were due to an international conspiracy of Jewry to poison Christendom. The condemnation came much later possibly because the conspiracy was started by a religious order, one of the conspirators was Rabbi Peyret, who had his headquarters in Chambéry, Savoy. His rumors resulted in thousands of Jews being burned” (1938). Why was the psychological impact more important than the loss of life? The loss of life had an impact on the region. This resulted in a loss of laborers, an economic loss and social changes. “The tremendous emotional shock of watching a ravaging plague that caused people to die quickly and quite painfully that probably killed friends and family members was psychologically traumatizing. This created a state of shock and depression and sometimes even panic that spread across more than an entire continent. The psychological impact affected the social and cultural aspects of the following Renaissance period” (1991).
Chapter Two - A New Spirit in the West: The Renaissance (1300-1640) A New Spirit Emerges: Individualism, Realism, and Activism
Renaissance was a rebirth characterized by the return to sources of learning and standards of beauty. The new focus on education, values of individualism, activism, humanism and realism, brought about a unique state-of-mind and accelerated change. The Renaissance celebrated humans and their achievements putting an optimistic faith in what we could become. The Politics of Individual Effort
Rulers introduced new politics and stimulated new spirit. Competition spurred individual effort. Republics and principalities were established governing ways and were challenged for their corruptness. Wealth from trade stemmed peace and aided growth in art and diplomacy....