The Way of the World
By William Congreve
أسماء عيسى الزغيبي شعبة الاحد
Table of contents :
1.Introduaction of the play
Arthur biography :
William Congreve was born on January 24, 1670, in the town of Bardsey in Yorkshire, England. By 1672, the family had moved to London; in 1674, the family relocated to the Irish port town of Youghal, where Congreve’s father served as a lieutenant in the British army. Growing up in Ireland, Congreve attended Kilkenny College, where Jonathan Swift was a few years ahead of him. In 1686, Congreve matriculated at Trinity College in Dublin, where he developed an interest in the sensual pleasures of life. Perhaps more importantly, it was while at Trinity that Congreve became a devotee of the theatre. He likely attended the Smock Alley Theatre, which ran plays that recently had success in London.
This play was written to be the exact same of the human beings . some people cheat and dissimulate and also get what they want with all illegal ways . By this way this how the world goes on .
The title of this play is significant because it points to one of the major themes of the play it sort of signals to us what the play is about. The play is a "comedy of manners" in which the playwright pokes fun at the social customs and values of his time. In this case, the author is mainly making fun of the sexual values of the time. He makes fun of marriages and dowries and he makes fun of the way men and women behave towards each other. The title helps us understand that he is making fun of these things -- of how the world works. We sometimes will say "that's the way of the world" when we are commenting on how foolish or absurd things are in our society. So by naming his play that, Congreve is signaling that he thinks that at least some things in his society are absurd or foolish. Restoration Drama
The term 'Restoration' refers to the period following the restoration of Charles II to the throne of the United Kingdom in 1660. The introduction of scenery and elaborate stage machinery to the English public stage in the 1660s gave rise to blockbusting semi-operas. Many of these were adaptations of other plays, often by Shakespeare. These had episodes of music, singing, dancing and special effects. They even had transformation scenes. The 1674 production of 'The Tempest' had many spectacular scenes including a storm. The advances in scene design impacted on the design of theatre buildings, and behind the thrust stage a scenic stage was added, framed by a proscenium arch. The Duke's Theatre in Dorset Garden was planned by William Davenant and designed by Christopher Wren, the architect of St Paul's Cathedral. It cost £9000 (about £600,000 today) paid for by 'adventurers' (we would call them backers). It stood by the River Thames and steps led up from the river for those patrons arriving by boat. The theatre was the grandest ever seen in Britain up to that time, with an elaborate proscenium arch, one of the first in London. Over the theatre were flats, where Thomas Betterton, the leading actor of the late 17th century and director of the acting company, lived. Restoration dramatists
Audiences had a preference for Restoration comedy and heroic tragedy in addition to plays by Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher and Shakespeare. Restoration dramatists include William Wycherley, George Etherege, Thomas Otway, William Congreve and George Farquhar. The double standards of courtiers and members of the aristocracy were reflected in Restoration drama's obsession with social behaviour. Powerful and well-mannered characters were often portrayed as corrupt and sexually promiscuous.
Main Characters :
Mirabell is a clever, handsome, young, and headstrong gentleman of good manners who is the admirer of and persistent suitor to Millamant. He also is the former lover of Mrs. Fainall, and he is liked by...