• Point of reference (for the orientation!): how do we orient, find point of references in the (built) environment (e. g. on the way home)? • Some landmarks are distant ones, seen from many angles and distances • Other ones are primarily local, being visible only in restricted localities and from certain approaches (they are depending on the subject!). Signs, store fronts, trees, doorknobs, and other urban detail.
• Junctions, places of break in transportation • Crossings or convergence of paths, moments of shift from one structure to another • Or nods may be simply condensations of some use or physical character. Some of these condensations can be the focus and symbol of a district • Many nods partake of the nature of both junctions and concentrations • Connections to other elements: paths, districts and landmarks.
• Formal/informal: the very first and general categorisation of public spaces (streets and squares) • Different classification from the point of view of the design. • Geometry: the square, the circle and the triangle (Krier) • Organization, defining elements (closed, dominated, nuclear, grouped, amorphous squares)
• Classifications of squares
– According to form – According to use
Paul Zucker (1959)
• Town and Square: From the Agora to the Village Green • The closed square • The dominated square • The nuclear square • The grouped square • The amorphous square
Rob Krier (1975)
• Der Stadtraum / Urban Space (1979) • Three main groups according to the geometrical pattern of their ground plan.” • Square – circle – triangel • Problem: the erosion of urban space,
Moving, staying, sitting in the city
• Three types of outdoor activities
– Necessary activities, under all conditions (going to school or to work, shopping, waiting for a bus, running errands) – Optional activities, only under favorable exterior conditions (taking a walk to get a breath of fresh air, standing...