The Use of Egcg and Quercetin as an Antimicrobial for Acinetobacter Baumannii

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Acknowledgements
Abstract
List of Contents
1.Introduction
1.1 Acinetobacter baumannii
1.2 Flavonoids
2.Materials & Methods
2.1 Materials
2.1.1 Bacterial samples
2.1.2 EGCG & Quercetin
2.1.3 Growth Media
2.1.4 Meropenem
2.1.5 Mast Paper Discs
2.2 Methods
3. Results
3.1 Susceptibility to EGCG
3.2 Susceptibility to Quercetin
3.3 Susceptibility in Synergy
4. Discussion
4.1 Similar Studies on EGCG
4.2 Similar Studies on Quercetin
4.3 Synergy between flavonoids and popular antimicrobial agents 4.4 Problems encountered with using flavonoids as antibiotics 5.Conclusion
References

Abbreviations

EGCG- Epigallocatechin gallate

DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid

G- Guanine

C- Cytosine

VRE- Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci

MRSA- Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MIC- Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

BSAC- British Society of Antimicrobial Susceptibility

DMSO- Dimethyl sulfoxide

ACIN- Acinetobacter

MIC90- Minimum Inhibitory Concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms

gyrB - DNA gyrase, subunit B

MSSA- Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

The use of EGCG and Quercetin as an Antimicrobial for Acinetobacter baumannii

1) Introduction

The main objective is to gather data on the possible use of EGCG and Quercetin as an antibiotic. The current research is still in its infancy and there are currently no flavonoid derived antibiotics. Attention has been paid to their antimicrobial activity, but no dramatic evidence has been reported. (Rauha et al, 2000) Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen that is rapidly evolving toward multidrug resistance and is involved in various nosocomial infections that are often severe. It is difficult to prevent A. baumannii infection because A. baumannii is ubiquitous and the epidemiology of the infections it is causes are complex. (Rauha et al, 2000; Dijkshoorn et al, 2007)

1.1 Acinetobacter baumannii

Acinetobacter baumannii is a strictly aerobic, nonfermenting, nonfastiduous, nonmotile, catalase positive, oxidase negative, gram-negative coccobacillus that is highly prevalent in nature. Its DNA has a G+C content of 33% to 4%. (Peleg et al, 2008) They are short, plump, gram-negative rods that are difficult to de-stain and may therefore be misidentified as gram positive. They form smooth, sometimes mucoid grayish white colonies and can resemble Enterobacteriaceae (Villers, 1998, Petez, 2008; Munoz-Price, 2008; Peleg et al, 2008). Multidrug resistant bacteria such methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE), multidrug resistant Pseudomonas and multidrug resistant Acinetobacter are becoming common causes of infection in the acute and long-term care units in hospitals. (Rauha, 2008; Xi Xu, 2001)

The genus Acinetobacter belongs to the family Moraxellaceae and has undergone significant taxonomic changes over the past 30years and has emerged as one of the most troublesome pathogens for healthcare institutions globally. It has the remarkable ability to up regulate and acquire resistance determinants and it’s uncanny ability to survive for prolonged periods throughout a hospital environment making spread inevitable, makes A. baumannii one of the organisms threating the current antibiotic era. The organism usually infects the critically ill, those with a breach in skin and respiratory defenses causing infection such as bacteremia and meningitis. However, hospital acquired pneumonia is the most common infection caused by this organism. (Dent et al, 2010; Karageorgopoulos et al, 2008; Bouvet et al, 1986)

Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria hold the title as being the leading...
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