the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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At three in the morning on December 7, 1948, after two months of over 80 meetings, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was created. The final obstacle for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was approval from the United Nation General assembly. In order for the document to be approved it required two-thirds of the vote. On December 10, 1948, the document was adopted.1 The United Nation has not been successful at enforcing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights because the underlying values in the document are not actually universal. Different states have different values about human rights. Even though some states signed the document, they did only to appear humane to others and hidden Human right violations continue. In the aftermath of World War II, the United Nations created UDHR for the purpose of preventing the next generation from devastation of international conflict, such as World War II. The last good war was an unprecedented global devastation. The levels of severity of the crimes of Adolf Hitler and his military could not have been predicted by Europe. Before the outbreak of World War II in March 1938, Austria was annexed under Hitler, which led international crises of human rights abuse.2 Patrakis 2

When Hitler’s military invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, this invasion would ignite the largest crimes against humanity the global community ever experienced. Once Hitler invaded Poland, war was declared by France, Britain, Australia, and New Zealand on Germany. This began the outbreak of World War II.3 Throughout World War II, Hitler launched attacks on the following countries: Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Yugoslavia, and Greece. The impact Hitler and his military had on the occupied countries and the global community was a horror that not been experienced until Hitler become Germany’s chancellor.4 The lasting effect of World War II was the Holocaust where six million Jews were murdered by Nazi Germany.5 The manner that was conducted to murder the Jews and other racial, ethic, and disabled populations would involve a variety of methods.6 The gas chamber would involve weak inmates who were unable to work in the labor camps.7 There were cases of gas vans and mass shootings.8 Around 5,000 children of various ages were included in the mass murders. The methods used to murdered children were starvation and overdoses of medicines. 9 The victims of the Holocaust were from thousands of locations in Europe. Winston explains, “Second World War is the greatest crime in recorded history, committed on human and geographical scale which far

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surpasses that of other acts of genocide”.10 During the Second World War, Human rights did not exist in terms of international laws. As a result of the mass murders of innocent women, children, and men this was an indication to the world leaders to develop pre-war international law in order to secure the global community. The process of drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was the idea of universalism of rights which would be applied to different types of people. McGuinness explain, “social and cultural contexts against pragmatic and realist account of resolving armed conflicts.”11 The drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was a difficult process.12 The process of the declaration would begin once the United Nations was established in 1945.13 Shortly after, there was tremendous pressure to pass an international bill of rights placed on the Charter of the United Nations. In 1946, the United Nation created the Commission on Human Rights.14 The Commission was responsible for the draft of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The draft committee includes the following: public figures Dr. Charles Malik of Lebanon, Alexandre Bogomolov of USSR, Dr. Peng-chun Chang of China, René Cassin of France Eleanor Roosevelt of United States, Charles Dukes of United Kingdom, William...
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