Prof. Dr. Md. Nur-Un-Nabi.
Business Administration discipline, Khulna University.
S.M. Hasanur Rahman
By ethics we mean the moral standard that defines what is right and what is wrong. The moral question of what is right and what is wroing poses many dilemmas for domestic marketers. The problem becomes more crucial in the international market place due to diversity of culture and the definition of ethical standard in each culture. The term "business ethics" is used in a lot of different ways. Business ethics is a form of applied ethics (Broni, 2010) that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment (Solomon, 1991). It applies to all aspects of business conduct (Baumhart, 1968; Ferell - Fraedrich, 1997; Singer, 1991) and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and business organizations as a whole (Bernard, 1972; onaldson, 1982:36).
Applied ethics is a field of ethics that deals with ethical questions in many fields such as technical, legal, business and medical ethics (Preston, 1997:6-11). Business ethics consists of a set of moral principles and values (Jones - Parker - Bos, 2005:17) that govern the behavior of the organization with respect to what is right and what is wrong (Badiou, 2001; Seglin, 2003). It spells out the basic philosophy and priorities of an organization in concrete terms (French, 1979; French, 1995). It also contains the prohibitory actions at the workplace (Collier - Esteban 2007:19; Duska, 1999). It provides a framework on which the organization could be legally governed.
We know Culture is the sum of the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation. To be accurate, culture is one of the factors that affect business ethics. The Random House College Dictionary defines ethics as, ``the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture, etc.'
The fundamentals of marketing in international market place can be viewed as a combination of below tasks:
1. Sound marketing strategy;
2. Professional marketing research;
3. World-class product development;
4. Effective pricing;
5. Motivating promotion; and
6. Appropriate distribution.
The success of international marketing depends on how the marketer blends the marketing tools to adapt the environmental differences among international market places. Rather learning organizational standards of doing things right/ wrong, in this paper we will try to cover the matter how ethical standards differ from culture to culture, what are the impacts of the differences on marketing initiatives and what should the manager do to overcome the situation.
Our objective is not to point out which practices are ethical and which are unethical. Our objective is to understand the differences and outline a means of managing them. What is important is that some cultures might view these practices with different levels of condemnation. Therein lies the problem for managers engaged in cross-cultural transactions. How do they anticipate and manage differences in ethical behavior rooted in differences in culture?
2.) Culture, the basis of business ethics:
At first let us have look on some examples how people of different cultures in different countries define corruption in their own way:
* Corruption is Profits (Marxism)
* Corruption is Individualism (Japan)
* Corruption is Rampant consumerism (India)
* Corruption is Missionaries (China)
* Corruption is Intellectual property laws (Sub-Sahara Africa)
There is common agreement that a country's culture is directly related to the ethical behavior of its managers. The...