I.Hypothesis and Rationale
* UNHCR responds to the challenges in the protection of the refugees by increasing the cooperation resulting in the uplift conditions of Refugees today.
* The world politics is now full of tensions, complexities, and chaotic. As we can see from the recent crisis for example, Libya (March 2011). Immediately, the number of more than 200,000 people had fled from Libya, mostly migrant workers from Egypt and Tunisia but including many more nationalities. This is the largest international evacuation since the 1st Gulf War (1990) (www.unhcr.org). The raising of crisis is alarmed as one of the global trends and causes a lot of displaced persons, asylum seekers and refugees. Not only the raising crisis, but also the existing wars, ethic cleanings, and civil wars results challenges of protection of people. Who can these people and the world count on in this kind of situation? Our very first assumption was the United Nations should be a key actor but which agency, what will be possible actions and will they actually be able to help those people are our primary inquiries. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was noticed in our mind as they are the UN refugee agency. UNHCR has played important roles in many world situations since 1951 and seems to be success for examples, saving boat people lives from South China Sea in 1975 and in 1989, UNHCR helped some 41,000 refugees from Angola, Zambia and others African countries went home. As a result, our group would like to conduct more researches whether the organization performs their job perfectly or it is just a deception. We also would like to analyze their successes and failures and study the future trends of refuge.
II.UNHCR Background history
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly with a three-year mandate to complete its work and then disband. The following year, on July 28, the United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees - the legal foundation of helping refugees and the basic statute guiding UNHCR's work - was adopted. By 1956 UNHCR was facing its first major emergency, the outpouring of refugees when Soviet forces crushed the Hungarian Revolution. Any expectation that UNHCR would become unnecessary has never resurfaced. In the 1960s, the decolonization of Africa produced the first of that continent's numerous refugee crises needing UNHCR intervention. Over the following two decades, UNHCR had to help with displacement crises in Asia and Latin America. By the end of the century there were fresh refugee problems in Africa and, turning full circle, new waves of refugees in Europe from the series of wars in the Balkans. The start of the 21st Century has seen UNHCR helping with major refugee crises in Africa, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Somalia, and Asia, especially the 30-year-old Afghan refugee problem. At the same time, UNHCR has been asked to use its expertise to also help many internally displaced by conflict. Less visibly, it has expanded its role in helping stateless people, a largely overlooked group numbering millions of people in danger of being denied basic rights because they do not have any citizenship. In some parts of the world, such as Africa and Latin America, the original 1951 mandate has been strengthened by agreement on regional legal instruments. In 1954, the new organization won the Nobel Peace Prize for its ground-breaking work in helping the refugees of Europe. Its mandate had just been extended until the end of the decade. More than a quarter century later, UNHCR received the 1981 award for what had become worldwide assistance to refugees, with the citation noting the political obstacles facing the organization. From only 34 staff members when UNHCR was founded, it now has more than 7,190 national and international members of staff,...
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