The Two Nation Theory

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Ideology --- Two Nation Theory Sir Syed --- Quaid --- Iqbal

Introduction: i) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan: The man who spoke first the Muslims as a “nation” in the modern times was none other than Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. In 1867, he said: “I am convinced that both these nations will not join whole heartedly in anything. At present there is no open hostility between the two nations. But on accounts of so called educated people it will increase in the future.” Analyzing on the demand of Indian National Congress for introduction of parliamentary elections he said: “The proposals of congress are exceeding expediently for a country which is inhabited by two different nations. Now suppose if the English leave India who would be the ruler of India? Is it possible under these circumstances that the two nations, the Indians and the Muslims would sit on the same throne? Most certainly not. It is necessary that one of them should surrender the other. To hope that both would remain equal is to desire the impossible.” ii) Allama Iqbal: He was a great philosopher and political thinker. He had studied Islam deeply and had profound likening for the Islamic principles. He compared the western culture with Islam and reached the conclusion that the welfare of mankind laid in the adoption of Islam as a way of life. He awakened the Muslims of the subcontinent and asked them to struggle for a separate homeland. This he did through his poetry. He said: “I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they cannot live with Hindus in United India.” Allama Iqbal openly negated the concept of one nation and emphasize on the separate national identity of Muslims. He was against the separation of religion from politics: “India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and religions. To base a constitution on the conception of homogenous India is to prepare her for civil war. I, therefore demand a separate Muslim state in the best interest of the Muslims of India and Islam.”

The Allahabad address: The Allahabad address of Allama Iqbal carries great importance in the freedom struggle of the Muslims of India. In his presidential address he classified the two nation theory and demanded a separate homeland for the Indian Muslims. He said: “I declare that the protection of the separate identity is in the best interest of Hindus and the Muslims. Since the Muslims of the sub-continent are a separate nation with their distinct culture and religious values and they wanted to have a system of their own liking, they should be allowed to live

under such a system in a separate state comprising of north western frontier province Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan.” The spirit which Iqbal infused in the Muslims by his Allahabad address developed into an ideological basis for the Pakistan movement. The famous Pakistan resolution passed on March 23, 1940 at Lahore was in fuel based on Allama Iqbal’s presidential address of Allahabad. iii) Quaid-i-Azam: Quaid-i-Azam gave practical shape to the ideology given and enunciated by Allama Iqbal. He was at last successful in convincing the Hindus and the British of the reality of two nation theory and the Pakistan ideology. Jinnah, after entering into politics advocated Hindu-Muslim unity. He wanted joint effort of Hindus and Muslims. Thus, he came to be known as the “Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity”. Lakhnow pact became possible for his sincere acts in (1916) but later on he was greatly disappointed by the prejudicial attitude of Hindus and Congress towards Muslims. Now Jinnah believed that Congress will never recognize rights of Muslims. He said in the second round table Conference (1931). “I want to inform everybody openly that the Hindu-Muslim dispute must be settled before the enforcement of any system or constituent. Until you cannot provide guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslims interests, until you do not win their co-operation, any constituent...
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