The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles consisted of 440 clauses. The first 26 clauses dealt with the establishment of the League of Nations. The remaining 414 clauses were about how Germany should be punished. Here are some the main points of the Treaty of Versailles Territory:
* Alsace Lorraine, captured by Germany in 1870, was returned to France. * The Saar, an important German coalfield, was to be given to France for 15 years, after which a plebiscite would decide ownership. * Poland became an independent country with a 'route to the sea', a corridor of land cutting Germany in two. * Danzig, a major port in East Prussia (Germany) was to be under international rule. * All German and Turkish Colonies were taken away and put under Allied control. * Finland, Lithuania, Latvia and Czechoslovakia were made independent. * Austria-Hungary was split up and Yugoslavia was created. Arms:
* The left bank of the Rhine was to be occupied by Allied forces and the right bank demilitarised. * The German army was cut to 100,000 men.
* Wartime weapons were to be scrapped.
* The German Navy was cut to 36 ships and no submarines.
* Germany was banned from having an Air Force
* An anschluss (union) between Germany and Austria was banned. Reparations and Guilt:
* In the 'war guilt' clause Germany has to accept total blame for the war. * Germany had to pay £6,600 million in compensation.
The League of Nations:
* A League of Nations was to be created to prevent further world conflict. Reactions:
Germany lost 13% of its land, 12% of its people, 48% of its iron resources, 15% of it agricultural production and 10% of its coal. Perhaps understandably, German public opinion soon swung against this 'Diktat', while the Germans who signed it were called the 'November Criminals'. Britain and France felt the treaty was fair – they actually wanted harsher terms imposed on the Germans – but the United States...
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