To investigate the conditions and circumstances in relation to bobby calves in dairies, related abattoirs’ and assorted slaughter and holding places. The essay will also examine the laws, policies and regulations currently in place regarding this topic, and whether or not the laws in place are doing everything possible to prevent the abuse of young bobby calves born to dairy livestock.
This report will endeavour to create an extensively detailed inquiry regarding the abuse of calves in the Australian dairy industry. This report will also take a deeper look into the background of the dairy industry, in both Australia and other countries. This will also include a study of the involved stakeholders, as well as featuring references from various articles and sources. The different laws, policies and regulations involved are also examined, and so allowing assessment, commendation, and suggestions to be assembled in relation to the dairy industry.
This topic was chosen, as it is an important part of Australian society, as many people make their living from the Industry, thus causing an impassioned subject.
The Dairy Industry in Australia
Since European settlement in 1788, the dairy industry has been one of Australia's most important vocations. Part of the first ships that founded Farm Cove, Port Jackson, was one bull, four cows and one calf. (ABS Year Book No.1). These beasts were to meant supply milk and dairy products to the new colony and to serve as foundation stock for future herds.
As more lands were explored and exposed, the expansion continued south into Tasmania and Victoria. In 1834, Edward Henty settled the area of Portland in southwestern Victoria to become one of Victoria's foremost farmers, producing butter and cheese and eventually exporting a cask of cheese to Tasmania; it was Victoria's first export. By 1836 the district of Port Phillip in Victoria had 155 head of cattle with a considerable number of those being used to yield milk, butter and cheese. By 1861, then number had risen to 116,000. South Australia and Tasmania's dairy development roughly paralleled Victoria's during the latter half of the 19th century, while the industry in Queensland prior to 1900 was confined mainly to the Darling Downs and Moreton districts. (Appendix 1)
After World War 1, dairying remained a local industry until refrigeration was invented. This meant that dairy exports to Britain were successful; when on previous attempts the products were usually used as axle grease on arrival. That was the first innovation. The second was the successful imports of grasses such as paspalum, English ryegrass, and clover, which allowed dairy farmers to greatly improve their pastures, and with it, the herd’s ability to produce plentiful good quality milk.
Once the hand operated cream separator was invented in 1881, the dairy business really took off. By the 1890s, 40% of the butter manufactured in New South Wales was being produced in factories, with the remainder still being produced on farms. Ten years later, nearly all-dairy products were made in factories, and a high proportion of these new factories were built, owned and operated by farmers, who produced butter, cheese and bacon. Pasteurisation of milk also contributed to greater hygiene in the distribution of milk, allowing expansion of the domestic milk market. (Appendix 1)
A Brief History of the World’s Dairy Industry
People have domesticated milk producing animals for thousands of years, dating back to the nomadic tribes who would moved small herds with them about the country. Protection and a food supply was a large part of the symbiotic relationship between man and beast. In the latter centuries, people situated in small village communities based around agricultural living owned herds that were milked for sole consumption and for sales around the community’s, a benefit of living in a tight knit district were refrigeration was non...