tyr 1. Introduction
1.1 What is a car tire?
A tire is a strong, flexible rubber casing attached to the rim of a wheel. Most of vehicle ties are pneumatic.The pneumatic rubber tire is the point of contact between the automobile and the road surface. It functions to provide traction for acceleration and braking and limits the transmission of road vibrations to the automobile body. （http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44957/automobile/259054/Tires） 1.2 What components are a car tire made of?
The main components of a tire are as follows:
（www.tokohama.com/customer service/ tire basics）
1. Sipes：Small, slit-like grooves in tread blocks that allow the blocks to move more. This added flexibility increases traction by creating an additional biting edge. Sipes are especially helpful on ice, light snow and loose dirt. 2. Belt：The belt is a reinforcement layer extending around the outer circumference of the carcass under the tread. It acts like an iron hoop in improving the stiffness of the tread area. In the case of truck and bus tires, the belt is more heavily reinforced compared to passenger car tires. 3. Bead：The bead area supports the extremities of the carcass on each side of the tire. This is the part of the tire that anchors the tire to the wheel. 4. Blocks：Those segments making up a tire's tread. The primary function of tread blocks is to provide traction. 5. Ribs：The straight-lined row of blocks that create a circumferential contact "band." 6. Shoulder：Provides continuous contact with the road while maneuvering.Shoulders wrap slightly over the inner and outer sidewall of a tire. 7. Void Ratio：The amount of open space in the tread.A low void ratio means more rubber is in contact with the road. A high void ratio increases the ability to drain water. Whether a tire has a high or low void ratio depends on the tire's intended use. 8. Sidewall：The sidewall on each side of the tire, between the shoulder and the bead is the section that deflects most during running. The rubber coating serves to protect the carcass. 9. Dimples：Indentations in the tread improve cooling. 10. Grooving：Used to create voids for better water channeling on wet road surfaces. It is the most efficient means of channeling water from in front to behind the tire. By designing grooves circumferentially, water has less distance to be channeled. Circumferential grooves provide the shortest distance from the front to the rear edges of the contact patch. 11. Tread：The tread is the part of a tire that contacts the road surface. The tread consist of a layer of rubber, compounded to suit the application purpose of the tire, and the thickness serves to protect the belt and carcass. The tread pattern serves the purpose of improving water drainage, providing traction, braking and cornering characteristics and long tread life. 12. Carcass：The carcass is the load-bearing framework that forms the body of the tire. It is composed of rubber coated steel cords laid in a radial direction. In consideration of the importance of a tire's load-bearing capability, truck and bus tire carcasses are more heavily reinforced than those of passenger cars. 13. Bead Filler：This is a reinforcement rubber that has a triangular cross-section and which is used to increase the stiffness of the bead. 14. Steel / Nylon Chafer: The chafer fabric andmore steel cords is wrapped around the bead section in order to reinforce it. It is conventionally composed of steel. However, the specification may sometimes call for the use of nylon. 1.3 What is a car tire made of?
A tire is made of rubber, carbon black and other chemicals.
1. There are two types of rubber: natural rubber and synthetic rubber.Nature rubber is a milky and sticky liquid in the bark of the rubber tree. Synthetic rubber is produced from the polymers of crude oil. 2. Carbon black is a fine soft powder created when crude oil or natural gas is burned with a...
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