The Three Industrial Revolutions

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The term industrial revolution refers means the strong transformation of a society- economically, socially, culturally and geographically. The Industrial revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in manufacturing, agriculture, mining, transportation and technology had a profound effect on the social, cultural and economic conditions of the times. FIRST IR

The main differences between the First and Second Industrial Revolution were the invisible hand in comparison to the visible hand in the Second Revolution. The use of non human labor such as coal and steam powered energy, compared to mass production with unskilled labor workers in the Second Industrial Revolution. Owners managing and owning their firms this is changed in the Second Revolution when managerial capitalism is introduced. The First Industrial Revolution is often referred to as the agrarian revolution, when farmers and country people moved into the city to work in factories. The development of the steam engine was an essential early element of the industrial revolution; however, for most of the period of the Industrial revolution, the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man power for driving small machines. Factory work, small firms and the free market made up the First Industrial Revolution . The need for work made farmers and artisans move to the cities. Although there were jobs to be had in factories, the conditions were often very bad and dangerous, especially for children. Moving towards the second Industrial Revolution these conditions were improved and working hours were cut down due to new inventions and machines The first Industrial Revolution could not have developed without machine tools, for the enabled manufacturing machines to be made. The manufacture of textile machines is the origin of the modern engineering industry. Machines were built by various craftsmen. Because of the difficulty of manipulating metal and the lack of machine tools, the use of metal was kept to a minimum. Wood framing has the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and the various joints tended to break over time. As the industrial revolution progressed, machines with metal frames became more common, but they required machine tools to make them economically. Before the invention of machine tools, metals was worked manually using the basic hand tools meaning production was very costly and needed many hours of labor. Railway construction did not begin until the early 19th century. After many of the workers had completed the railways they did not return to their rural lifestyles but instead remained in the cities, providing additional workers for the factories. Railways helped Britain’s trade enormously, providing a quick and easy way of transport and an easy way to transport mail and news. Management style in the First Industrial Revolution was the owner and manger was the same person. It was also the beginning of integrated organizations. Inventions such as the spinning jenny and the water-powered frame, both of which provided spinning yarn faster, the spinning mule, the power loom and the cotton gin, all helped the manufacture of cotton goods by speeding up the process. Mass production had begun in the first industrial revolution, along with capitalism. Capitalist people who had their own materials, money and space, bought many machines and stored them in a factory, where hired people worked the whole day manufacturing goods. The factory system had replaced the cottage industry. Steam engines were invented, providing a faster mode of transportation, instead of the use of horses and carriages. With steam engines, cities were able to move farther away from rivers and sources of water, to start cities. SECOND IR

Essentially, although the first Industrial Revolution was revolutionary for countries such as Britain, the Second Industrial Revolution was a true world...
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