The Thirty Years War

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The Thirty Years War 1618 – 1648
(War of religion throughout Europe)
And
War of politics (protecting/expanding territories

Protestant Countries – Denmark, Germany, the Low Countries Catholic Countries – Spain, Italy, France

* England fought in The Thirty Years War against Spain and France * Charles committed to spending 20,000 to fund the Danes fight against Catholics * Parliament refused to fund Charles I past first year

England – France and Spain dangerous Catholic powers and economic rivals

Stuart Monarchs
(1603-1625) James VI and I – united Scotland, England, Wales and Ireland – peaceful rule (1625-1649) Charles I – didn’t trust his own opinions, followed advice of lesser people

The Wars of the Three Kingdoms
1642 -1629

The wars of the three kingdoms were three wars;
* A national rebellion in Scotland
* A rebellion in the multicultural conflict zone of Ireland * A civil war in the political society of England

Charles I and how he came to alienate his subjects

As King had three main concerns
* How to fund his government
* How to limit parliaments interference in his rule
* How to reform the church

Charles I relationship with Parliament
* Parliament untrusting of Charles I due to marriage to a French Catholic * Parliament unwilling (both Commons and Lords) to fund Charles I rein past first year * Parliament dissolved by Charles I for eleven years, so Charles could rule un-challenge * Without money from parliament, Charles I taxed citizens with disused taxes

Charles I relationship with the Church of England
* William Laud appointed Arch Bishop of Canterbury
* William Laud wants to reinstate the (catholic) ceremony * William Laud wants to extend English forms of worship to Scotland * William Laud changes location of communion table to East wall of church * Communion now taken in the form of the crucifixion (Catholic) instead of last super * Dislike begins to form between ruler and ruled due to faith (word of God/Catholic

Charles I relationship with the Church of Scotland
* Insisted Scottish use “ Book of Common Prayer” instead “Book of Common Order” * Brought in law on church ceremony to make Scotland comply with English Ceremony * Scottish Bishops and people angered) Bishops war - Scotland musters army * Parliament called, Parliament offers no sympathy to Charles I

The political processes in England forced the taking up of arms in 1642. Companied by the failure of the political process in Scotland and Ireland that led the Scots and Irish taking up arms against the English in 1638 and 1641, respectfully. Certainly the difficulties of balancing the claims of three kingdoms, each with a distinctive religious character, with his own convictions about the nature of kingship and the church, placed demands on Charles I that he was ill placed to meet!

Why Charles I thought against his own parliament – (Grand Remonstrance)

* Parliament couldn’t trust Charles I anymore
* Charles I presented the bill Grand Remonstrance to sign * king should only appoint ministers to his court which parliament had confidence in * Parliament wouldn’t support Charles I estate (financially) without it signed * Parliament wouldn’t support the Danes in the Thirty Years War without it signed * Charles refused to sign the “Grand remonstrance” retreated to York * Parliament sanctions bill without Charles I consent

* Further propositions as debated by parliament including Charles I children * Charles issues the “commissions of Array” ( war against parliament) * Parliament responds with “The militia Ordinance” (war against the king)

Taking of sides – split in parliament:
* Roundheads – Soldiers of parliament (Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell) * Cavaliers – Soldiers of the King (Thomas Wentworth and Prince Rupert)

Cavalier supporters
The Kings supporters had an...
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