Third Round Table Conference 1932 : Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison. The discussions led to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935. Note : The meeting of All – India Kisan Congress was held in 1934 in Lucknow under the Presidentship of Sahajanand Saraswati. The Government of India Act 1935 :
·Based on the Simon commission report. (The recommendations are mentioned separately in the Charter Acts at the end). ·The Congress rejected the 1935 Act and demanded the convening of a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise to frame a constitution for an independent India. J.L. Nehru described it as “we are provided with a car, all breaks and no engine”. ·Yet, INC fought the election in 1937, when the constitution was introduced and formed ministries in seven out of eleven provinces. Later, Congress formed coalition governments in two others, only Bengal and Punjab[->0] had non – Congress ministries. Punjab[->1] was under the Unionist Party and Bengal under the Krishak Praja Party-Muslim League coalition.
Second World War History and The National Movement in India : ·The Congress ministries coming to power did wonders to the morale of the people. They continued to function till the coming of the Second World War in 1939. When the war broke out, Lord Linlithgow declared India to be at war without prior assent of the Central Legislature. ·The Congress agreed to support Britain only in return of independence being granted. The Viceroy could promise this only after the war. In October – November 1939, the Congress ministries resigned in protest. The Muslim League observed this as the Deliverance Day (Dec 22, 1939). ·INC was willing to help the forces of democracy in their struggle against fascism, but asked how it was possible for an enslaved nation to aid others in their fight of democracy. They declared that India must be declared free or at least effective power put in Indian hands before it could actively participate in the war. ·The Viceroy refused to accept preconditions set by the Congress – Constituent Assembly for establishment of genuine responsible government at the Centre. Eventually, however, the British Government was eager for the INC to support their war efforts. Subsequently, it tried to pacify the Congress and the Indian leaders by a series of offers through August Offer and Cripps Mission. The Demand for Pakistan :
·In 1930, Iqbal suggested that the Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Sindh and Kashmir be made the Muslims state within the federation. ·Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan[->2] in 1933. ·Mohd. Ali Jinnah of Bombay gave it practicality.
·Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940 (called Jinnah’s Two – Nation Theory). It was drafted by Sikandar Hayat Khan, moved by Fazlul Haq and seconded by Khaliquzzaman. ·In December, 1943, the Karachi session of the Muslim League adopted the slogan – ‘Divide and Quit’. The August Offer 1940 Aug 8 : It offered :
·Dominion status in the unspecified future.
·A post – war body to enact the constitution.
·to expand the Governor – General’s Executive Council to give full weightage to minority opinion. ·Rejected by the INC because there was no suggestion of the national government and because the demand for the dominion status was already discarded in favour of Poorna Swaraj. It was accepted by the Muslim League. The Cripps Mission 1942 :
·In Dec 1941, Japan[->3] entered the World War – II and advanced towards Indian borders. By Mar 7, 1942, Rangoon fell and Japan occupied the entire S E Asia. ·The British govt, with a view to get co-operation from Indians sent Sir Stafford Cripps, leader of the House of Commons to settle terms with the India leaders. ·He offered a draft which contained the following proposals: 1.Dominion status to be granted after the war.
2.Setting up a...