The Study of Human Nature

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 311
  • Published : September 13, 2011
Open Document
Text Preview
“try to understand what it is to be human”
Biocultural approach: the relationship between what humans have inherited genetically and what they learn culturally Holistic: understanding people with all aspects of human nature Comparative: cross cultural

Ethnocentric: a view that is centered on a specific ethnic group (usually ones own) belief in the superiority in ones ethnic group Cultural Relativism: a view that considers human interaction and behavior within their own culture. Sex vs. gender Ex: “Na” no form of marriage

Ex: “effic” fattening room
Fieldwork: going out and studying culture, going to a museum, excavation, library, and archives

4 subfields of anthropology:
1. Linguistic Anthropology: someone who focuses on language Ex) body language 2. Cultural Anthropology: culture: learned behavior (distinct among groups, passed down, evolutionary) 5,000 different cultures 3. Archaeology: studying past human behavior based on what they left behind ex) arrowheads, pottery, clothing 4. Biological Anthropology: (this class) biological aspects of being human ex) race, modern human variation, primates, fossil record

American Anthropology
* Fraz Boas: set the standard “Father of American Anthropology” 4-field approach:
biocultural approach
trained 1st generation
* Ales Hrdlicka: created “American Association of Physical Anthropology” also started the AAPA * Charles Darwin: “Origin of Speices” 1859
5 year round the world trip
species change (evolution)
adaptive radiation (common ancestor, multiple different descendents) gradualism: gradual change
Natural Change
History of Evolutionary thought
Middle ages: influenced by religious beliefs, “great chain of being” Order: everything can be arranged in a hierarchal order
Stasis: idea of not changing
Fixity of species (things were created in a fixed way)
14th-18th Centuries: Renaissance and enlightment, technological advances(microscope, telescope), increase in exploration(demonstrated diversity)

Darwins Influences
1. Carlos Linnaeus: binomial nomenclature (categorization) 2. Buffon: environment has an influence on life “things don’t change” 3. Lamark: tried to explain how change happen “inheritance of acquired characteristics” = characteristics that are acquired in an individuals lifetime, can be inherited by their offspring. 4. Cuvier: catastrophism. Periodic revolutions involving the earth (cause mass extinctions, but other lifeforms would move in and repopulate 5. Lyell: Uniformitarianism= geological processes that operated in the past, are the same as those happening today. The landscape is constantly changing. *calculated that earth is very old 6. Malthus: Demographer (population studies) population is limited by resources 7. Wallace: naturalist. Independently came up with a basic idea of natural selection.

History of DNA:
1944- DNA method of transmission
1953- Structural/Functional Model Published

DNA structure: 2 chains of nucleotides
Sugar + phosphate + base (bases = A, G, C, T) base-pair specificity (bases bind in specific patterns) replication (growth, development, maintenance, repair) Nuclear DNA: nucleus, 20000 genes, “blueprint” template, homoplasmic Mitochondrial DNA: mitochondria, 37 genes, mito functions, heteroplasmic

Gene- a sequence of DNA that is responsible for some function. Structural: specific function. Coding for a protein. Responsible for body structures. Regulatory: sequence od DNA whose function is to regulate the expression of other genes. (turns other genes on and off) Homeotic(Hox) genes: regulatory genes that regulate how and when the body forms tissues and organs Chromosomes: sequence of genes (46 total) *species specific 23 homologous...
tracking img