The Skin & Skeletal System

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Chapter 5

Epidermis
• Stratified squamous epithelium
• Innermost layer: stratum germinativum
• Outer layer: stratum corneum
• Pigment layer: contains melanocytes that makes melanin (skin color)

Dermis
• Connective tissue
• Collagenous fibers that give toughness to skin & elastic fibers that allows skin to stretch • Upper regions contain projections that makes fingerprints • Contains nerves, muscles, hair follicles, glands, & blood vessels

Accessory Organs
Hair
• Papillae: where growth of hair begins
• Arrector pilli: causes hair to stand straight up; goosebumps

Sebaceous Gland: makes oil or sebum for hair & skin

Pacinian Corpuscle: deep in the dermis & detects pressure

Meissner’s Corpusle: close to skin surface & detects sensation of light touch

Krause’s End Bulb: detects low frequency vibration

Free Nerve Endings: detect pain & temperature

Sweat glands
Eccrine sweat glands
• Produce sweat
• Assist in body heat regulation
Apocrine sweat glands
• Found in axilla (armpits) & around genitalla
• Thicker secretion than eccrine gland

Function
Protection
• Protects against harmful chemicals, excess fluid loss, ultraviolent radiation, cuts & tears Temperature Change
• Regulation of sweat secretion
• Regulation of flow of blood close to body surface
Sense Organ
• Nerve endings detect changes in environment
• Receptors inform changes in environment

Burns
First degree
• Minor discomfort & redness of skin
• Damages epithelial layers
Second degree
• Blister, pain, swelling, fluid loss, sometimes scarring • Damages deep epithelial layers & upper layers of the dermis Third degree
• Severe scarring
• Destroyed nerve endings causing inability to feel pain • Epidermis & dermis layers completely destroyed; also destroyed tissue in subcutaneous layers

Membranes
Cutaneous membrane-skin
• Epithelial cells &...
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