CPY 3.1 – Understanding child and young person’s development. Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 years. NEW BORN BABY
Physical – The first few days of a baby’s life are usually composed of long periods of sleep interspersed with short periods when the baby is awake. The duration of wakefulness lengthens gradually and includes periods of fretfulness, crying and calmness. The responsiveness of the baby depends on the state of sleep or wakefulness (Brazelton and Nugent 1995). At birth the arms and legs are characterisitically stiff (hypertonia) and the trunk and neck floppy (hypotonia). Lying on the back (supine) the arms and legs are kept semiflexed and the posture is symmetrical. Babies born after breech presentation usually keep their legs extended. Pulled to sitting, marked head lag is present. Held in a sitting position, the back is curved and the head falls forward. Placed on the abdonmen (prone) the head is promptly turned sideways. The buttocks are humped up, with the knees tucked under the abdonmen. The arms are close to the chest with the elbows fully flexed. Moro Reflex – Is in born, not learnt. It is normally present in new born baby’s to the age of 3 months. When the baby feels it is falling, the arms are flung back with the hands open, the arms are then together as if to clutch hold of something. Palmer grasp – A reflex in new born baby’s to 6 months. If you touch the palm of a baby’s hand, it’s reaction is to curl it’s fingers around your finger and cling to it. Planter – The reflex in the foot, when you stroke the sole of the baby’s foot. Toes spread out and foot turns inwards, up to the age of 12 months. Communication – Within a few days of birth, infants establish interaction with their carers through eye contact, spontaneous or imitative facial gestures and modulation of their sleep-wakefulness state. Intellectual/Cognitive – Babies are sensitive to light and sound at birth through visual responsiveness varies at birth. From birth onwards, or within a few days, infants turn their eyes towards a large and diffuse source of light and close their eyes to sudden bright light. An object or face must be brought to a distance of 30 centimetres to obtain interest and fixation. Infants usually turn their eyes to slowly follow a face.
Social, emotional and behavioural – Patterns of interaction and subtle indications of individuality shown by babies from birth onwards strengthen the emotional ties between infants and their carers. 3 MONTH OLD
Physical – Lying on back, prefers to lie with head in midline. Limbs more pliable, movements smoother and more continuous. Waves arms symmetrically, hands loosely open. Brings hands together in midline over chest or chin. Kicks vigorously, legs alternating or occasionally together. When pulled to sit, little or no head lag. Held sitting, back is straight except in lumbar region. Head held erect and steady for several seconds before bobbing forwards. Needs support at shoulders when being bathed and dressed. Lying on abdomen, lifts head and upper chest well up in midline, using forearms to support and often actively scratching at surface with hands, with buttocks flat. Held standing with feet on hard surface, sags at knees. Visually very alert, particularly looking at nearby human face. Moves head deliberately to gaze attentively around. Follows adults movements within their visual outlook. Follows dangling toy at 15-25 centimeters from face through half circle horizontally from side to side and usually also vertically from chest to brow. When lying supine watches movements of own hands before face and engages in finger play, opening and closing hands and pressing palms of hands together. Reaches out to grasp with both hands by 16-18 weeks of age. May move head from side to side as if searching for sound source. Quietens to sound of rattle or small bell rung gently out of sight....