The Saljuks

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The Great Saljuq Sultanate!
Although the Turks had played an important role in the Islamic world, before the 11th century, the arrival of the Saljuq Turks marks a new era in Islamic history. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of the Saljuq Turks' in Islam. In doing so, the paper will be divided in two parts. The first part will present the historical background of the arrival of the Saljuqs and their participation in Islamic politics. The second part will discuss the contribution of the Saljuq administrative system to Islamic politics. Turks had been participating in the Islamic politics well before the 11th century. For example, the Mamluks and the Ghaznawids were from Turkish origin. What made the Saljuqs distinct from these earlier Turks is how they have penetrated Islamic politics. Before the 11th century, Mamluks and the Ghaznawids were slaves recruited as individuals and took power from inside. However, the Saljuqs came in as organized tribal groups and conquered the Persia and much of the border lands. The Saljuq conquest marked the beginning of Turkish rule in Persia. This rule arguably lasted until 1925. In 426/1035, the Saljuq brothers Toghril Beg and Chaghri Beg led the Saljuq tribe to move into Khurasan. The brothers battled against the Ghaznawids to take over Khurasan. According to the course reader, the Khurasan population accepted the Saljuq rule just as they had earlier accepted the Ghaznawids. Five years later the Ghaznawids regrouped and waged war against the Saljuqs. The Ghaznawids were defeated and never came back. The Beg brothers ruled together until the death of Chaghri Beg in 452/1060. Morgan notes that this shared power between the two brothers was "in accordance with the Turkish conception of the nature of political sovereignty, which the Saljuqs had brought with them from central Asia." After they had defeated the Ghaznawids from Khurasan, the brothers perceived that their major threat was the...
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