The Roma: A Thousand Years of Discrimination

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Understanding Discrimination
A Global View
The Roma: A Thousand Years of Discrimination

Hate Crimes Institutional Discrimination
Research Focus
Discrimination in Job Seeking

Discrimination Today Wealth Inequality: Discrimination’s Legacy Listen to Our Voices
Of Race and Risk

Environmental Justice Affirmative Action Reverse Discrimination The Glass Ceiling

How Can Discrimination Be Understood? Why Are There Hate Crimes? How Do Institutions Discriminate? What Is the State of Discrimination Today? How Is Wealth Inequality Discrimination’s Legacy? What Is Environmental Justice? What Is Affirmative Action? What Is Reverse Discrimination? What Is the Glass Ceiling? ISBN 1-256-48952-2

Racial and Ethnic Groups, Thirteenth edition, by Richard T. Schaefer. Published by Merrill Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

Just as social scientists have advanced theories to explain why prejudice exists, they have also presented explanations of why discrimination occurs. Social scientists look more and more at the manner in which institutions, not individuals, discriminate. Hate crimes are a particularly violent and personal way by which people are denied their rights. Institutional discrimination is a pattern in social institutions that produces or perpetuates inequalities, even if individuals in the society do not intend to be racist or sexist. Income data document that gaps exist between racial and ethnic groups. Historically, attempts have been made to reduce discrimination, usually through strong lobbying efforts by minorities themselves. Patterns of total discrimination make solutions particularly difficult for people in the informal economy or the underclass. Affirmative action was designed to equalize opportunity but has encountered significant resentment by those who charge that it constitutes reverse discrimination. Despite many efforts to end discrimination, glass ceilings and glass walls remain in the workplace.

ISBN 1-256-48952-2

Racial and Ethnic Groups, Thirteenth edition, by Richard T. Schaefer. Published by Merrill Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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ll they wanted to do was go for a swim. The 65 children of the Creative Steps Camp of Philadelphia were to swim each summer Monday afternoon at the Valley Club in suburban Huntingdon Village. Upon their arrival at the pool that first Monday in July 2009, some parents called their children out of the pool, fearing it was dangerous. The Creative Step swimmers were almost all either Black or Latino while the Valley Club’s is overwhelmingly White. The next day the Valley Club said the campers were not permitted to return and refunded the camp’s $1,950 without explanation except the club president expressed concern “that a lot of kids would change the complexion . . . and the atmosphere of the club.” Fortunately, another private organization offered its pool, while a U.S. senator called for an investigation into whether the incident violated the civil rights of the children (Lattanzio 2009). The human casualties from natural disasters are well documented. This has been especially true with the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast in 2005. Also well known now are the ill-planned evacuation plan in New Orleans, the subsequent high death toll, the ineffectiveness of levee construction and maintenance, and the initial slow response and the subsequent prolonged recovery, especially for low-income residents. The persistent role of discrimination in the aftermath has been less a part of the national consciousness. Although Hurricane Katrina made victims of everyone, poor minority people have been especially victimized. Rural tribal Native American groups and Vietnamese American Gulf residents fell through the cracks of recovery plans. Latino workers who came to...
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