26. United Kingdom (UK) is one of the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU), and is, hence, directly affected by laws & policies of the European Union. Give a brief description of the roles & responsibilities of the Institutional Triangle of the EU, including their law making (legislative) powers. Also, give a very brief description of the other two main institutions of the EU, namely, the European Council and the European Court of Justice (ECJ). (5 Marks)
The roles and responsibilities of the institutional triangle of the EU is that the institutional triangle produces the policies and the laws that are applied throughout the EU. The rules and procedures that the institutions must follow are laid down in the treaties, which are agreed by the member states' presidents and prime ministers and approved by their parliaments. The commission proposes new laws but the parliament and council adopt them. The European Council represents the Heads of States (Presidents / Prime Ministers), The European Council defines the general direction of the European Union. The primary function of the European Council is to give the general impetus and social, economic and political guidance. However, its guidelines & declarations are not legally binding. It also amends the existing treaties, makes changes to the institutions, signs new treaties and decides on the entry of new members. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) upholds the rule of European law. It is the responsibility of the Court of Justice to ensure that the law is observed in the interpretation and application of the Treaties establishing the European Communities and of the provisions laid down by the competent Community institutions.
27. Give a brief description of the following institutions of the European Union (EU): - The European Council;
- The Council of the European Union (the Council of Ministers); - The European Parliament;
- The European Commission; and
- The European Court of Justice (ECJ).
Also, give a very brief description of the changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty which came into force on 1 December 2009.
The European Council, which represents the Heads of States (Presidents/Prime Ministers); the primary function of the European Council is to give the general impetus and social, economic and political guidance. The Council of the European Union represents the individual Member States. Some of the key responsibilities of the council of the European Union include: - The Council adopts Community legislation; in many fields it legislates jointly with the European Parliament; - It coordinates the broad economic policies of the Member States; - In the name of the European Community it concludes international agreements between the Community and one or more States or international organizations.
The European Parliament represents the EU’s citizens and is directly elected by them. Parliament shares budgetary powers with the Council. It adopts the budget, supervises its implementation, and grants a discharge in respect of that implementation. Parliament also takes part to varying degrees in drawing up Community legislative instruments (laws). The European Commission seeks to uphold the interests of the Union as a whole. The Commission consists of 27 members (one per Member State), chosen on the grounds of their general competence, whose independence is beyond doubt. The Commission is responsible for drawing up proposals for new legislative instruments which it forwards to the Parliament and the Council. It also puts policies into effect and implements the budget of the European Union: the Commission is responsible for managing and carrying out the budget and puts into effect the policies and programmes adopted by Parliament and the Council. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) upholds the rule of European law. It is the responsibility of the Court of Justice to ensure that the law is observed in the interpretation and application of the Treaties...
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