The Role of the Chicago Convention & the Icao in the Development of International Air Law - a Critical Approach

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  • Topic: International Civil Aviation Organization, Airline, Air safety
  • Pages : 17 (3774 words )
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  • Published : March 15, 2011
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With all the jets bustling above our heads, allowing us to get to virtually any destination in a couple of hours, very few of us would believe civil aviation to be an ancient or orthodox subject. Still, it is nearly a century ago that Mr Charles Furnas, flying with Wilbur Wright at Kitty Hawk became the world's 1st airplane passenger on 14 May 1908. On 1 January 1914 the 1st regular - planned passenger service began in Florida, USA. It was an uncertain beginning with two flights a day through Tampa Bay carrying one passenger each way. On 22 May 1917 a freight of 220 kg of mail was taken from Turin to Rome, Italy, commencing the route for air mail & freight transport. By end 1920, there were already a number of consistent daily, international commercial services started.

The era before the Second World War created the global development of civil aviation. By 1939 nearly the whole world was enveloped by an inter-connecting air transport system managed by 10 world airlines & 19 intercontinental air routes.

The end of the Second World War observed the commencement of the new era of swift growth of civil aviation based on larger & superior airplanes, providing safer & inexpensive commercial air transport. The phase of modern civil aviation had taken-off.

On November 1944, senates of 52 nations gathered at Chicago, to construct a framework for the development anticipated in world civil aviation. The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also recognized as the Chicago Convention, offered the creation of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) - an international body to monitor & control international civil aviation. ICAO came into being on 4 April 1947, after 26 states had approved the convention. From 1944 to 1947 a provisional organization (PICAO) functioned, laying down the basis for a new international organization to be headquartered in Montreal, Canada.

The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also recognized as the Chicago Convention, founded the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a dedicated agency of the United Nations charged with organizing & controlling international air travel. The Convention determines rules of airspace, aircraft registration & safety, & details the privileges of the parties in relation to air travel. The Convention also relieves air fuels from tax.

The document was signed on December 7, 1944 in Chicago, Illinois, by 52 participant states. It obtained the necessary 26th ratification on March 5, 1947 & got into effect on April 4, 1947, the same date that ICAO came into existence. In October of the same year, ICAO became a dedicated agency of the United Nations Economic & Social Council (ECOSOC). The Convention has subsequently been revised eight times (in 1959, 1963, 1969, 1975, 1980, 1997, 2000 & 2006).

The original signed document resides in the National Archives of the United States.

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a focused agency of the United Nations, classifies the principles & practices of international air navigation & fosters the planning & growth of international air transport to guarantee safe & orderly growth. Its headquarters are situated in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The ICAO Council implements standards & recommended practices regarding air navigation, its arrangement, Flight inspection, inhibition of unlawful interference, & facilitation of border-crossing processes for international civil aviation. Plus, the ICAO expresses the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety boards in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, generally known as the Chicago Convention.

The ICAO must not be confounded with the International Air Transport Association (IATA), a trade organization for airlines also headquartered in Montreal, or with the Civil Air...
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