In financial economics, a financial institution is an institution that provides financial services for its clients or members. Probably the most important financial service provided by financial institutions is acting as financial intermediaries. Most financial institutions are highly regulated by government. Broadly speaking, there are three major types of financial institutions: 1. Deposit-taking institutions that accept and manage deposits and make loans, including banks, building societies, credit unions, trust companies, and mortgage loan companies 2. Insurance companies and pension funds; and
3. Brokers, underwriters and investment funds.
Financial institutions provide service as intermediaries of the capital and debt markets. They are responsible for transferring funds from investors to companies in need of those funds. Financial institutions facilitate the flow of money through the economy. To do so, savings a risk brought to provide funds for loans. Such is the primary means for depository institutions to develop revenue. Should the yield curve become inverse, firms in this arena will offer additional fee-generating services including securities underwriting, and pre. Use Equity Multiples (as opposed to Enterprise Multiples). To consider how valuing a Financial Institution's balance sheet is different from a non-Financial firm, consider how an industrial firm wields capital machinery (asset) and the loans (liabilities) it used to finance that asset. The line is blurred in Financial Institutions, which must hold deposit accounts (liabilities) to fuel the issuance of loans (assets). The same accounts are considered loans as they are held in ownership not of the bank, but of the individual client. Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model : You'll need the FCFE (Free Cash Flow for Equity), which is the amount of money that is returned to shareholders. Calculate an FCFF (Free Cash Flow to the Firm): EBIT (1-tax rate) -Capital Expenditures+ (Depreciation & Amortization) - (Net increase in working capital)= FCFF Use the Capital Asset Pricing Model, not the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (for the same reasons one uses Equity Multiples in relative valuation) to determine the cost of equity (the return required by shareholders to make the decision to invest in a financial institutions) Excess Return Model : A model where valuation is expressed as the sum of capital invested currently in the firm and the present value of dollar excess returns that the firm expects to make in the future. Standard settlement instructions
Standard Settlement Instructions (SSIs) are the agreements between two financial institutions which fix the receiving agents of each counterparty in ordinary trades of some type. These agreements allow traders to make faster trades since time used to settle the receiving agents is conserved. Limiting the trader to an SSI also lowers the likelihood of a fraud. Regulation
Financial institutions in most countries operate in a heavily regulated environment as they are critical parts of countries' economies. Regulation structures differ in each country, but typically involve prudential regulation as well as consumer protection and market stability. Some countries have one consolidated agency that regulates all financial institutions while other have separate agencies for different types of institutions such as banks, insurance companies and brokers. There are many financial institutions that play a great roll in the development of Bangladesh. Some are given below:
The term Non Government Organizations (NGOs) as used here embraces grassroots, intermediary and international groups involved in community developmentThey are distinguished here from community-based organisations (CBO) which include primary self help groups (samity in Bangla) organised around savings or credit and their secondary or tertiary associations. In the 1980s I worked as a development...
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