The Rise of the Nice Ceo?

Topics: Pregnancy, Nutrition, Folic acid Pages: 10 (2945 words) Published: March 7, 2013
Teenage Pregnancy
Teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy in a female under the age of 20 (when the pregnancy ends). A pregnancy can take place at any time before or after puberty, with menarche (first menstrual period) normally taking place around the ages 12 or 13, and being the stage at which a female becomes potentially fertile. Teenage pregnancy depends on a number of societal and personal factors. Consequences of teenage pregnancy

 Pregnant teenagers face many of the same obstetrics issues as women in their 20s and 30s. There are however, additional medical concerns for mothers age 14 or younger. For mothers between 15 and 19, risks are associated more with socioeconomic factors than with the biological effects of age. Teenage pregnancy is a serious issue that may seriously impact the future of a young woman. Any teen pregnancy will be a challenge as teens typically lack skills needed to handle a pregnancy and motherhood. Patience, maturity and ability to handle stress are required by pregnant mothers of all ages. A teen pregnancy may also impact the baby. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes that babies born to teens may have weaker intellectual development and lower skill set scores at kindergarten. They may also have ongoing medical issues and behavioral issues.In developed countries, teenage pregnancies are associated with many social issues, including * lower educational levels

* higher rates of poverty
* Emotional crisis
* Worries about future
* Delayed education
* Smoking and drugs
* Exhausting
* Depression
* Neglect of baby
* Trouble with finances
Consequences that can arise from Poor Nutrition during Pregnancy include: * Fetal Development
Poor nutrition during pregnancy can cause major problems with a child's development. It increases the baby's risk of being unusually small at birth and of suffering from pre-term birth. Poor nutrition also increases the likelihood of stillbirth or the risk of blood-chemistry and breathing problems at birth, which can cause severe stress early in life. Low zinc levels can also cause unusually small babies and increase labor time. * Neural Tube Defects

A lack of folic acid during pregnancy increases the risk of a major birth defect known as a neural tube defect. Neural tube defects are problems with the development of the spinal cord and brain and include spina bifida. Women need 400 mg of folic acid each day before pregnancy and for the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. You can get folic acid in leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits and some fortified grains. However, because it can be hard to obtain adequate folic acid from diet alone, pregnant women should take a supplement. * Developmental Delays

Avoid toxic substances such as alcohol, lead and mercury. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome, an irreversible condition that often results in physical deformities and learning/behavioral problems in children. Lead, found in some imported candies from Mexico, can increase risk of miscarriage, preterm delivery and developmental delays in children. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns that mercury found in fish, has also been linked to neurological complications. However, because of the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy, expectant mothers are advised to consume low-mercury fish, including salmon, canned light tuna and pollock, instead of high-mercy species, such as shark and swordfish. * Effects on Mother

Poor nutrition can also affect the health of the mother during pregnancy. Inadequate calcium intake will cause the fetus to leach calcium from the mother's bones, resulting in weak and brittle bones. Pregnant women over 19 need 1,000 mg of calcium and mothers under 19 need 1,300 mg per day while pregnant. In addition, iron deficiency during pregnancy can cause anemia, resulting in fatigue, pallor and weakness. * Epigenetic Changes

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