The Rise of Nationalism

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The Rise of Nationalism


What is Nationalism?

Modern African Nationalism

Colonial Oppression

Missionary Churches



League of National and United Nations

Independence Movements

What Is Nationalism?

Feelings based on shared culture, heritage and historical experience

Desire to maintain the same through various means

Modern African Nationalism

Even after the establishment of colonial rule, Africans displayed their dissatisfaction with and resistance to occupation

Took a variety of forms based on the territory or colonial ruler

Fueled by several factors

Colonial Oppression

Humiliated and deprived of their own land

Revolts were met with brutal suppressions

Independence was the ultimate goal

Missionary Churches

Three Goals


Western Values

Raise level of productivity

Had a profound effect on Africa

Served as a catalyst for nationalism

Educated Africans to fight for rights

Made them want to succeed in modern world

Nationalistic Leaders

Jomo Kenyatta

Spent years in England gaining support for native Kenyans

Imprisoned for the Mau Mau uprising in 1952

First President of Kenya (1964 – 1978)

Leopold Senghor

Senegalese poet and politician and 1st president of Senegal (1960–1980)

Held up by France as the personification of assimilation

Studied at the Sorbonne and taught in Paris

Was a German POW during WWII

Was a member of the French Parliament

WW I and WW II

African war veterans

3 million served in both wars fighting against German and Italian imperialism

African from different regions served together and fostered nationalism

Were not rewarded for service

Colonial immigrants flocked to Africa post WW II and were given great tracts of land


Catalysts for the movement


Marcus Garvey

W.E.B. DuBois

First black to be awarded a doctoral degree from Harvard

Organizer of the Pan-African Conferences

Influenced the growth of African nationalism

Pan-African Objectives

Protest racism

Instrument for anti-colonial struggle to bring about African rule for Africans

Inspiration for future federated Africa

Organization of African Unity (OAU) – now the African Union (AU)

Pan-African Conferences

Series of five conference (1919 – 1945) held in various European capitals to promote and legitimize the tenets of the Pan-African movement

W.E.B. DuBois was moved to organize the Pan-African movement through these conferences because of the severe mistreatment of Africans that resisted colonial exploitation, especially in the Belgian Congo

Modern African Nationalism

League of Nations

Born out of the destruction from WW I

Colonies of Germany and Italy were to be transferred and eventually given self-rule

Things did not really change

Italy invaded Ethiopia Haile Selassie called on League to take action

League doomed to failure

WW II broke out

Modern African Nationalism

United Nations

Founded at the end of WW II


Maintain world peace

Develop good relations between countries

Promote cooperation in solving the world’s problems

Encourage respect for human rights

Italy lost all its territories

Eritrea given to Ethiopia

Was the vehicle for African independence

Independence Movements

Independence movements were slow to form because of the European creation of nation-states without regard to ethnicity

Nationalism asserted itself in force after WW II

Channeled through seven social/economic groups

Independence Movements

Professional Groups (doctors. Lawyers)

Petty bourgeoisie (teachers, clerks, small merchants)

Colonial bureaucracy...
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