1. Spread of Liberalism
- Liberal ideas from Europe filtered in when Spain gradually exposed Philippine to international commerce.
- The sons and daughters of the Principalia were able to attain education, thereupon giving then exposure to libertarian ideas.
2. Sentiments against the Principales – proportion of the local aristocracy to the broad masses.
3. Racial Prejudice
- Inferior race, limited intelligence
4. Cultural changes
5. Secularization Controversy
- Council of Trent – secular priests appointed to parishes. But due to lack of sec. priests, Pope Pius V issued Exponi Nobis (1567) w/c allowed the regular clergy to serve as parish priests w/out diocesan auth. And be exempted from bishop’s auth.
6. Cavite Mutiny
- 200 Filipino soldiers and dock warriors of Cavite mutinied and killed their Spanish officers led by Sergeant Lamadrid. 2 days after, he was executed together w/ 41 mutineers in Bagumbayan.
- Some were exiled, hanged, and garroted.
The Propaganda Movement was a literary and cultural organization formed in 1872 by Filipino émigrés who had settled in Europe. Composed of Filipino liberals exiled in 1872 and students attending Europe's universities, the organization aimed to increase Spanish awareness of the needs of its colony, the Philippines, and to propagate a closer relationship between the colony and Spain. Its prominent members included José Rizal, author of Noli Me Tangere (novel) and El Filibusterismo, Graciano López Jaena, publisher of La Solidaridad, the movement's principal organ, Mariano Ponce, the organization's secretary and Marcelo H. Del Pilar.
In February 17, 1872, Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora, all Filipino priest, was executed by the Spanish colonizers on charges of subversion. The martyrdom of the three priests... [continues]
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