1. Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive, stay in business, and to provide jobs. 2. Adopt the new philosophy- we are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, learn their responsibilities and take on leadership for future change. 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basic by building quality into the product in the first place. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move towards a single supplier for any one item on a long term relationship of loyalty and trust. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs. 6. Institute training on the job.
7. Institute leadership (see point 12): the aim of supervision should be to help people, machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management, as well as supervision of production workers, is in need of overhaul. 8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company. 9. Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and problems in use that may be encountered with the product or service. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforces that ask for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationship, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the workforce. 11a. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor; substitute leadership instead. 11b. Eliminate management by objectives, by numbers and by numerical goals; substitute leadership instead. 12a. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his or her right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. 12b. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. This means, inter alia, abolishment of the annual or merit rating and of management by objectives. 13. Institute a vigorous programmed of education and self-improvement. 14. Put everyone in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everyone’s job.
Question 2: In Japanese companies, what are the major motivations for introducing TQM and associated problem points? The Japanese define their goal as continual improvement towards perfection. They allocate responsibility for quality and its improvement among all employees. The workers are primarily responsible for maintaining the system, although they have some responsibility for improving it. Higher up, managers do less maintaining and more improving. At the highest levels, the emphasis is on breakthrough and on teamwork throughout the organization.
There are a number of now familiar concepts associated with Japanese-style TQM, or total quality control (TQC) or company-wide quality control (CWQC) as they term it (see Mizuno 1988; Nemoto 1987). CWQC is defined by JUSE (see Deming Prize Committee 1997) as: A set of systematic activities carried out by the entire organization to effectively and efficiently achieve company objectives and provide products and services within a level of quality that satisfies customers, at the appropriate time and price. Earlier work tried to make a distinction between TQC and CWQC, but in Japanese companies today they appear to be one and the same. These concepts include: * Total commitment to improvement
* Perfection and defect analysis
* Continuous change
* Taking personal responsibility for the quality assurance of one’s own processes * Insistence on compliance
* Correcting one’s own...