Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions : An Empirical Analysis Ms. Gurpreet Randhawa
Department of Commerce & Business Management, Amritsar Guru Nanak Dev University,
The present study attempts to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. The data was collected from 300 scientists (150 from National Dairy Research Institute, Kamal and 150 from Agriculture Extension Centres in Haryana). The scientists were surveyed by questionnaire. The sample was drawn by using the simple random sampling technique. The results showed a significant negative correlation between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. This signifies that higher the job satisfaction, lower is the intent of a person to quit the job. Further, comparative analysis was also done in order to measure the significance of difference between the mean scores of two groups of scientists. The results revealed that the two groups of scientists do not differ significantly on the measures of job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Key Words: Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intentions.
Work in today's organizations
by increasing complexity,
rapid change and increasingly competitive business environments (Cascio, 1998). In such a turbulent environment, the organizations are facing a gradual shift in the traditional employment relationships. Organizational loyalty is reported to be in employee turnover decline as turnover rates increase, average job tenure falls and employees go "job shopping" (Neumark, 2001). Under these recent developments has been viewed as an important organizational problem. Its importance lies in the
fact that there are numerous negative consequences in organizations if the rate of employee turnover is high. The direct and indirect costs associated with turnover, not only in terms of recruitment and training, but also in terms of work disruption and demoralization of remaining employees are very significant and expensive. Turnover intention has been acknowledged as the best predictor of actual turnover (Mobley, 1977; Horn and Griffeth, 1995; Michaels and Spector, 1982; Mobley et al., 1978; Brodie, 1995; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1974). Mobley et al. (1979) observed that behavioural intentions to stay or leave are consistently related to turnover behaviour. Also, Wunder et al. (1982), in their turnover model, measured intent to leave as a surrogate for actual turnover. Turnover intention is a complex phenomenon that depends ~n various factors. Growing body of research on employee turnover behaviour indicates that age, job satisfaction, tenure, job image, met expectations, organizational commitment are consistently related to turnover intentions and the actual turnover (e.g. Arnold and Feldman, 1982; Wotruba and Tyagi, 1991; Brodie, 1995). Among various factors influencing the intentions of a person to quit the job, job satisfaction has been found to be most influential. Locke (1976) described job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences". The process how job dissatisfaction leads to thoughts of quitting is well explained by Mobley's (1977) turnover model which posits that job and working conditions affect job satisfaction which in turn leads to the thought of quitting, to evaluate the utility of searching behaviour, job search. evaluation of alternatives, comparison of alternatives vis present job, intention to quit or stay, and finally to turnover or retention behaviour. Research findings have shown that people who are relatively satisfied with their jobs, will stay in them longer, i.e. lower turnover, and be less absent (Jewell and Segall, 1990; Locke, 1976). Considering the significance of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in influencing the intentions of employees to quit the organization, the present study was designed to examine the relationship...