Author's personal copy
International Journal of Intercultural Relations 35 (2011) 246–258
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International Journal of Intercultural Relations
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijintrel
The relationship between cultural intelligence and performance with the mediating effect of culture shock: A case from Philippine laborers in Taiwan Angela Shin-yih Chen a , Yi-chun Lin b,∗ , Airin Sawangpattanakul c a b c
Chang Gung University, 259, Wenhua 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan National Taiwan Normal University, 2, Sec. 1, Ren-ai Rd., Linkou Township, Taipei County, Taiwan National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
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This purpose of the present study was to explore the role of cultural intelligence (CQ) and its effect on performance of foreign laborers. We also examined the mediating effect of culture shock on the relationship between CQ and performance. Data were collected from Philippine laborers working in Taiwan. A paper-based survey, with a return rate of 76.4%, was completed by 382 Philippine laborers working in Taiwan’s manufacturing industries. The results showed that CQ was positively related to the performance of Philippine laborers and negatively related to culture shock. In addition, we found that culture shock partly mediated the relationship of CQ and performance. These ﬁndings suggested that CQ can serve as a predictor for cross-cultural effectiveness. Implications for practice and direction for future research are offered. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article history: Accepted 3 September 2010 Keywords: Culture intelligence Culture shock Performance Foreign laborers
1. Introduction Today, rapid advances in technology and communication have created a global economy (Friedman, 2006). In this global marketplace, people have many opportunities to choose employment in different countries. As such, the socio-demographic factors such as race, religion and sex that already make for a multi-faceted workforce in a given organization can be exacerbated by the factor of nationality. Employees can ﬁnd themselves working in a newly diverse cultural environment. This phenomenon has required many organizations and individuals to meet the challenges of cultural diversity (Crocker, 2002; Earley, Ang, & Tan, 2006; Stiglitz, 2003). In order to diminish the problems caused by cultural diversity in the workplace, employees must be open to interacting with colleagues who are from different cultures, and they must have the ability to build interconnections with people who are different from them. In other words, when employees understand cultural differences in the workplace, they are more apt to accept them. This kind of intelligence can be an index for the capability to effectively adapt to new cultural contexts. Earley and his colleagues introduced the construct of cultural intelligence (CQ) to explain differences in the effectiveness of individual interactions across cultures (Earley, 2002; Earley & Ang, 2003). Individuals with a higher CQ can more easily navigate and understand unfamiliar cultures and adjust their behaviors to perform effectively in culturally diverse...