The Relation Debtor and Creditor

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BANKING LAW
                                                                                    1.      Explain the origin & development of banking in India. 2.      What are the objectives & achievements of bank nationalization in India? 3.      State the argument for & against nationalization 4.      What are the main functions of banks?

5.      Who is a banker and customer? Explain the general relationship between banker & customer. OR The relation between a banker and a customer is that of a debtor and a creditor. Explain. 6.      Explain the special relationship between banker & customer. OR What is the special relationship arising out of general relationship between a banker and a customer. OR What are the rights and obligations of a banker towards a customer? 7.      What are the obligations of a banker?

8.      Explain the banker’s right of general lien.
9.      What are the circumstances under which a disclosure by banker is justified? OR Banker’s duty of secrecy is not absolute. Explain. 10.        Who are the  banker’s special customers? Explain the precautions to be taken by the banker in opening and operating their accounts. 11.        What are the functions of commercial banks? 12.        What are the functions of the Reserve Bank of India? 13.        Explain the management, powers and constitution of the Reserve Bank of India. 14.        Explain the role of Reserve Bank in economic development.

15.        In what way does the Reserve bank exercise control over the commercial banks? 16.        Explain the Reserve bank’s licensing function. 17.        Write a short of Regional Rural Banks

18.        Write a note on Central Co-operative banks. 19.        What are the advantages & disadvantages of unit & branch banking? 20.        What are the differences between schedule & non-schedule banks? 21.        What are the rights of a banker against surety?What are the precautions to be taken by the banker? 22.        Explain the concepts of guarantee & indemnity 23.        What are the precautions to be taken by the banker in the case of hypothecation? 24.        What are the differences between lien & hypothecation? 25.        What are the differences between hypothecation & pledge? 26.        Write a note of secured & unsecured loans

27.        Write a note on fixed deposits
28.        Write a note on current account
29.        Write a note on savings bank account
30.        Write a note on recurring account.

1.    Explain the origin & development of banking in India.  
     Banking was in existence in India during the Vedic times (2000 BC to 1400 BC). Money lending was regarded as an old art and was practiced in the early Aryan days.      Rina (debt) is often mentioned in the ‘Rig Veda’ reflecting a normal condition prevalent in the Vedic Society.      The transition from money-lending to banking must have occurred before Manu-he states that a sensible man should deposit his money with a person of good family, good conduct, well-acquainted with law, wealth and honorable.      There are references to lending and banking in the two epics namely Ramayana & Mahabharata. During that period banking had become a full fledged business More details pertaining to money lending in the Sutra period (7th century to 2nd century) are available from the Jatakas (Buddhist writings). Jatakas establish the existence of seths (money lenders) and contain several stories of Kings receiving financial help from the guilds. From these accounts it is evident that money lending, banking and trading were interlinked. In the Buddhist period even the Brahmins & Kshatriyas started taking banking as a business. Bills of exchange came into use in this period.      The banking business was being carried out even in the Smriti period and the Smritis explained the methods of regulation of interest.      The tradition from money-lending to banking appears to have taken place in the 2nd or 3rd century AD....
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