THE Epic relates to the ancient traditions of two powerful races, the Kosalas and the Videhas, who lived in Northern India between the twelfth and tenth centuries before Christ. The names Kosala and Videha in the singular number indicate the kingdoms,--Oudh and North Behar,--and in the plural number they mean the ancient races which inhabited those two countries. According to the Epic, Dasa-ratha king of the Kosalas had four sons, the eldest of whom was Rama the hero of the poem. And Janak king of the Videhas had a daughter named Sita, who was miraculously born of a field furrow, and who is the heroine of the Epic. Janak ordained a severe test for the hand of his daughter, and many a prince and warrior came and went away disappointed. Rama succeeded, and won Sita. The story of Rama's winning his bride, and of the marriage of his three brothers with the sister and cousins of Sita, forms the subject of this Book. The portions translated in this Book form Section vi., Sections lxvii. to Ixix., Section lxxiii., and Section lxxvii. of Book i. of the original text. I
AYODRYA, THE RIGHTEOUS CITY
Rich in royal worth and valour, rich in holy Vedic lore,
Dasa-ratha ruled his empire in the happy days of yore,
Loved of men in fair Ayodhya, sprung of ancient Solar Race,
Royal rishi in his duty, saintly rishi in his grace,
Great as INDRA in his prowess, bounteous as KUVERA kind,
Dauntless deeds subdued his foemen, lofty faith subdued his mind! Like the ancient monarch Manu, father of the human race,
Dasa-ratha ruled his people with a father's loving grace,
Truth and Justice swayed each action and each baser motive quelled People's Love and Monarch's Duty every thought and deed impelled, And his town like INDRA'S city,--tower and dome and turret brave-- Rose in proud and peerless beauty on Sarayu's limpid wave!
Peaceful lived the righteous people, rich in wealth in merit high, Envy dwelt not in their bosoms and their accents shaped no lie, Fathers with their happy households owned their cattle, corn, and gold, Galling penury and famine in Ayodhya had no hold,
Neighbours lived in mutual kindness helpful with their ample wealth, None who begged the wasted refuse, none who lived by fraud and stealth! And they wore the gem and earring, wreath and fragrant sandal paste, And their arms were decked with bracelets, and their necks with nishkas graced, Cheat and braggart and deceiver lived not in the ancient town, Proud despiser of the lowly wore not insults in their frown, Poorer fed not on the richer, hireling friend upon the great, None with low and lying accents did upon the proud man wait
Men to plighted vows were faithful, faithful was each loving wife, Impure thought and wandering fancy stained not holy wedded life, Robed in gold and graceful garments, fair in form and fair in face, Winsome were Ayodhya's daughters, rich in wit and woman's grace Twice-born men were free from passion, lust of gold and impure greed, Faithful to their Rites and Scriptures, truthful in their word and deed, Altar blazed in every mansion, from each home was bounty given, 'Stooped no man to fulsome falsehood, questioned none the will of Heaven. Kshatras bowed to holy Brahmans, Vaisyas to the Kshatras bowed Toiling Sudras lived by labour, of their honest duty proud,
To the Gods and to the Fathers, to each guest in virtue trained, Rites were done with true devotion as by holy writ ordained, Pure each caste in due observance, stainless was each ancient rite, And the nation thrived and prospered by its old and matchless might, And each man in truth abiding lived a long and peaceful life, With his sons and with his grandsons, with his loved and honoured wife. Thus was ruled the ancient city by her monarch true and bold, As the earth was ruled by Mann in the misty days of old,
Troops who never turned in battle, fierce as fire and strong and brave, Guarded well her lofty ramparts as the lions guard the cave. Steeds like INDRA'S in their swiftness came from...
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