Liberty University Online
The intent of this literature review is to research the theory of quality management with an emphasis on the use of kaizen and the European Quality Management Model (EFQM). Through the use of scholarly articles based on research within the field of quality management in both the domestic and global business arenas, the reader will understand the history and significance of the use of QM and the impact the theory is showing in businesses today and for the future. Kaizen, implemented after World War II, is a Japanese practice focusing on continual improvement. EFQM, a practice based on the EFQM Excellence Model, was initiated in Europe as a compilation of the best quality management practices in use. Both of these applications contribute to the advancement of the theory of quality management as tools to increase productivity, quality, and consistency, and to afford organizations a competitive position in the marketplace. Keywords: consistency, improvement, leadership, management, people, quality
The Quality Management Theory with an emphasis on Kaizen and EFQM Introduction
Quality management is the achievement of good quality combined with an assurance that a business organization is achieving consistency in production. Quality control was introduced in the 1920’s to detect and fix production line problems. Statistical theory was the applied tool; the focus has “since widened from quality of products to quality of all issues within an organization” (“History of quality,” n.d.). The beginnings of quality management
Dr. Walter Shewhart developed the first schematic and statistical control charts as a way to control processes to eliminate defective products. While his idea has undergone changes to the basic chart, it remains the basis of statistical process control in industries today (Fisher & Nair, 2009, pp. 3-4). Joseph M. Juran added the human dimension to QM through the introduction of the Quality Trilogy, which included quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. In the 1950’s, W. Edwards Deming proposed that business processes should be analyzed and measured in a continuous feedback loop called the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) based on a model by Shewhart. Deming’s focus was on the level of improvement in production processes (Arveson, 1998). Deming is often credited with the rise of Japan as an industrial nation. While working there after the Second World War, he taught statistical process control to engineers; these techniques allowed the manufacture of high quality goods without expensive equipment and ushered in a country-wide reindustrialization. The result was that Japan quickly became the foremost industrialized nation, threatening the United State’s position. In 1982, Deming set out fourteen points considered as the foundation of total quality management. They include: creating constancy of purpose towards improvement through long-term planning, adopting the new philosophy indicating that management leads the way, ceasing dependence on inspection, moving towards a single supplier for any one item, instituting leadership, improving constantly and forever, instituting on-the-job training, driving out fear, breaking down departmental barriers, eliminating slogans and management by objectives, removing barriers to pride of workmanship, instituting education and self-improvement, accepting the reality that transformation is everyone’s job. While Deming has been criticized for not providing the tools necessary to implement the changes, the challenge is that once a company knows what to change, it can begin the process to continually improve (Cohen, n.d.). Kaizen as a quality management tool
Kaizen is the quality management movement that resulted in industrial changes in Japan after the War; the Japanese word means continuing improvement and applies to all...