The Pungwe Project

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Table of Contents
Introduction……………………………………………………………………..2 IWRM Principles ……………………………………………………………….4
Principle 1: Water as a finite and vulnerable resource …………………4 Principle 2: Stakeholder Participation …………………………….,
Principle 3:
Principle 4:
Conclusion…………………………………………………….. Bibliography……………………………………………………………..

List of figures
Figure 1: Location and Spatial Delineation of the Pungwe River Basin…… Figure 2: Stakeholders Meeting…………………………………………

The Pungwe Project
1. Introduction
The Pungwe River Basin Joint Integrated Water Resources Management Strategy, hereafter referred as the “Pungwe Project”, was initiated in February 2002 as a collaborative initiative by Mozambique and Zimbabwe to jointly manage, develop and conserve water resources in the Pungwe River basin and was funded by the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA/ASDI). The Pungwe River Basin is an international watercourse shared by Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The Pungwe River stretches for about 400km from its source in the Inyangani Mountains, Zimbabwe to its estuarine mouth in the Indian Ocean cost of Mozambique (Figure 1), with a total basin area of 31 000 square kilometres. Only a small portion of the total basin, approximately 5% is located in Zimbabwe while the rest is within the central region of Mozambique. Despite the relatively small spatial extent of the portion of the Pungwe Basin being located in Zimbabwe, it contributes a high proportion of the river’s total annual discharge owing to the high precipitation received throughout the year in this upland portion of the basin. Within Zimbabwe, water scarcity appears to affect areas adjacent to the Pungwe basin rather than areas within the basin. The Nyanga communal resettlement areas to the north of the basin have high water surface deficits. Water shortages created by a rowing urban population and an increasing industrial water demand in the city of Mutare, which is located in the Odzi Sub Catchment of the adjacent Save River Basin, resulted in the development of an interbasin water transfer scheme, the Pungwe-Mutare water Supply project which involves the withdrawal of water by gravity from the Pungwe river via a long tunnel to an outlet into the Nyakupinga Tributary of the Odzi River, then to the Odzani Treatment Works. From there it is transported through a pipeline to the City of Mutare’s Christmas Pass Reservoir. This pipeline passes through the Mutasa Communal Lands and its people expressed an interest in gaining access to the Pungwe water for irrigation purposes.

Figure 1: Location and Spatial Delineation of the Pungwe River Basin In Mozambique, the water scarcity problem affects Beira City during the dry season, while the problem of flooding almost exclusively affects the lower reaches of the Pungwe floodplain during periods of high rainfall Water shortages in Beira are due to the saltwater intrusion within the 80km long stretch of the river, where the intake pipe that supplies the city is located and also due to the inadequacy of the city’s water supply infrastructure to cater for the potable needs of the population.

2. IWRM Principles
The IWRM principles, also referred to as the Dublin Principles are a particularly useful set of principles which have been carefully formulated through an international consultative process culminating in the International Conference on Water and the Environment in Dublin, 1992. The four Dublin principles are

* Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment * Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy makers at all levels. * Gender plays a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water. * Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognised as an economic good.

2.1 Water as a finite and...
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