Fermentation is a process performed by cells in the absence of oxygen to produce small amounts of ATP. During this process the six-carbon sugar glucose is broken down into two molecules of the three-carbon organic acid, pyruvic acid, coupled with the transfer of chemical energy to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Fermentation is used by many producers to make many of the commodities which we are used to today. Some of these commodities include yogurt, cheese, wine, bread, beer, rum, and even tea. To make these commodities a suitable microorganism is put into a specified condition. With a bit of careful adjustment of nutrient concentration, a commodity is produced. For example, the production of one of the most important foods, bakery, begins when a mixture of flour and water is fermented into a thick gruel, dough, which can be baked to make bread, cake, and much more. The process of making yogurt also uses fermentation. During this process milk solids are usually added to make yogurt with a custardlike consistency. Concentrated sterilized milk is then inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus or a lactose fermenting yeast which is then incubated at about 43° to 44°C for four to five hours until curd forms.
Yogurt is known and consumed in almost all parts of he world and different methods are used in making it. One of the largest producers of yogurts in the world is Turkey, which is thought to be the birthplace of yogurt. Some of the other commodities such as cheese are greatly produced in The Netherlands, France, Italy, and Switzerland. The leading producers of, wine, which is also a product of fermentation are France, Italy, Spain, Argentina, Portugal, Germany, South Africa, and the United States.
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