the beliefs of the people. The pen stands for positive and constructive efforts, while the
sword signifies negative postures and destruction all around. The sword can force them into
submission but cannot propagate and idea. Pen can solve many complex issues. The sword can
only destroy. Wars have no significance impact on the development of a nation.
Writers, thinkers and artists created the sprit of the modern world by the power of the pen.
The French Revolution owned inspiration to the writings of Rousseau and Voltaire. Karl
Marx's Das Capital inspired Lenin, the leader of the Russian Revolution. The Communist
Manifesto, the combined work of Fredrick Engels and Karl Marx formed the basic of modern
Charles Dickens exposed the evils of capitalism in his works like David Copperfield and
Oliver Twist. Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of life was based on the teachings of the Gita.
David Thoreau's The Civil Disobedience inspired Gandhiji for Satyagraha during the freedom
struggle in India. In the Vietnam war, journalists and photographers played a key role in
bringing about an end to the conflict.
India's freedom struggle was based on the supremacy of the pen over the sword. The major
national newspapers, The Hindu, The Tribune, Bengalee, Kesari and the Amrita Bazar Patrika
waged a campaign against the British rule. The leaders were able to communicate their ideas
to the people through the press. They were able to promote among them a feeling of
nationalism and unity. Gandhiji himself edited two newspapers, Navyug and Harihan to
mobilize the masses. The victory of our freedom movement over the British to some extent was
the victory of the pen over the sword.
The victories of the sword are short lived. Alexander's desire to conquer the world remained