It is historically acknowledged that an individual with great character and profound principle can and will alter the course or collective consciousness of a community, society or government. So-called "Civilization" is fundamentally, the result of families forming communities, which develops societies', that establishes laws/rules that are to be obeyed, thereby forming a Government' to maintain Civilization. This is a code of behavior and cooperation that men and women must' mutually agree upon to establish and maintain the functionality, peace and prosperity of said Community. It is characterized by common interest and may possess a distinctive culture and institutions. However, occasionally the Governing System may become abusive or support corrupt or destructive inhumane institutions. When this happens, an "individual" of that Community may arise who rebels against the dysfunctional system, for the greater good and ultimate reformation and survival of the people that live within that "Government".
The life and influence of Henry David Thoreau is an archetypical example of the power' of honor, integrity and love of Community. Mr. Thoreau was born on July 12th 1817 (departed May 6th 1862), he was an American author, a naturalist, public speaker, tax resister, inventor, philosopher, war resister and life long abolitionist, who is best known for his essay "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience". This writing has profoundly affected the course of modern history.
On July 25th 1846 Mr. Thoreau was jailed for refusing to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and against what he considered the unjust Mexican-American War 1846 - 1848, (of which the states now known as California, New Mexico, Nevada, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado & Arizona were gained ) During this war' then a Second Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant. expressed no reservations about serving, yet later called the war "one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. It was an instance of a republic following the bad example of European monarchies, in not considering justice in their desire to acquire additional territory", (Smith, Jean Edward, Grant, Simon and Shuster, 2001, pp. 87-88) ; this duplicity of mind was not to be tolerated' in the philosophy of Thoreau.
Henry David Thoreau's, fundamental position was in his own words:
"It is not a man's duty, as a matter of course, to devote himself to the eradication of any, even to most enormous, wrong; he may still properly have other concerns to engage him; but it is his duty, at least, to wash his hands of it, and if he gives it no thought longer, not to give it practically his support. If I devote myself to other pursuits and contemplations, I must first see, at least, that I do not pursue them sitting upon another man's shoulders. I must get off him first, that he may pursue his contemplations too. See what gross inconsistency is tolerated. I have heard some of my townsmen say, "I should like to have them order me out to help put down an insurrection of the slaves, or to march to Mexico--see if I would go"; and yet these very men have each, directly by their allegiance, and so indirectly, at least, by their money, furnished a substitute." "All men recognize the right of revolution; that is, the right to refuse allegiance to, and to resist, the government, when its tyranny or its inefficiency are great and unendurable" "In other words, when a sixth of the population of a nation which has undertaken to be the refuge of liberty are slaves, and a whole country is unjustly overrun and conquered by a foreign army and subjected to military law, I think that it is not too soon for honest men to rebel and revolutionize. What makes this duty the more urgent is that fact that the country so overrun is not our own, but ours is the invading army." (Henry David Thoreau, 1849, original title: Resistance to Civil Government)