The Power and Influence of Advertising
2. Design Issues4
4. Appendix 1: Quantitative Data 9
5. Appendix 2: Qualitative Data18
The Power and Influence of Advertising
The questionnaire has been designed to record respondents’ views on the power and influence of advertising in various media.
The questionnaire consists of six questions, designed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Five out of the six questions (questions 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6) are closed questions, suitable for the recording of quantitative data. Respondents are offered a selection of pre-written answers and choose the category or categories most suited to their profile or opinion.
Questions 1 and 2 record respondents’ basic personal details, whilst ensuring that each respondent remains anonymous. Question 1 records the respondent’s sex, and produces nominal data. Question 2 asks respondents to select an age category. This is a preferable practice to asking respondents’ exact age, as people are occasionally unwilling to reveal this information, thus resulting in missing data. This question records ordinal quantitative data.
Question 3 asks respondents to choose which form of media they consider to be the most powerful. The questionnaire allows a choice of three responses; “still image (magazines and newspapers)”, “still image (billboards)”, or “moving image (TV)”. This question records nominal quantitative data.
Question 5 asks respondents to record whether or not a skilful advertising campaign would influence them to vote for a particular political party, purchase a particular product or brand, or revise their opinion on a specific issue or cause. Respondents are able to select as many or as few options as they wish. This question also records nominal data, as no chosen option is of a higher value than the others.
Question 6 records ordinal quantitative data by asking respondents to gauge their opinion of how much they feel that they are influenced by advertising, in comparison to other people. Respondents have the option to choose from three options; “less than other people”, “more than other people”, or “about the same as other people”.
In contrast, Question 4 is an open question, designed to allow respondents to elaborate on their perception of the power and influence of the specific media focussed on by the researchers. Naturally, this type of in-depth response contains far more detail, allowing an insight into the individual respondent’s feelings and opinions on the issue. The data provided by this type of question is also more difficult and time-consuming to analyse, as the analyst must sift through each response in detail.
Qualitative data of this type could possibly be allocated to separate categories to allow a quantitative analysis, but this would lose any subtlety inherent in the detail, and the categories would offer a fairly crude interpretation of the responses.
2. Design Issues
Although each researcher has asked all respondents exactly the same questions, there are minor differences in the design layout of each researcher’s questionnaire.
Researcher A lists all available options for each question on the questionnaire paper. He then records all quantitative responses with a YES or NO beside each respondent’s choices.
Similarly, Researcher B also lists all available options for each question on the questionnaire paper. She then circles all respondents’ selected quantitative responses.
Researcher C adopts a slightly different approach to recording his data. Except in the case of question 5, a multiple answer question, where all potential answer options are displayed on the questionnaire paper, Researcher C simply records each respondent’s answer to a single choice question below the appropriate question. Researcher C also attaches an alphabetical annotation to the...