We can relate physics to softball in many different ways. It is actually hard to not think about the game of softball without some physics in mind. Specifically, the ideas of momentum and energy helps define the way softball works and why it works.

Momentum
Running: When running the bases in softball, there is a lot more to it then the average person would think. While we run the bases, we are changing our momentum by applying more force, the force of friction, onto the ground which causes more force exerted on us because of Newton’s 3rd law. Applying more force in turn increases the base-runner's velocity.

Catching: When catching a fly ball or grounder, it is best to move with the ball and not catch it right over your head or right in front of you with stiff hands. By Newton’s 3rd law, for every action there is an opposite reaction, so we can decrease the amount of bounce the ball has on our hands. This is done by increasing the impact time. By increasing the impact time, we decrease the force making catching much easier and also much more effective.

Throwing: When throwing, there is a given and constant force exerted by the player onto the ball. To get a stronger and faster throw, we want the greatest change in momentum. A longer time in contact with the ball will give us a large change in momentum, also known as impulse. This idea explains the reason why us softball players are taught to reach our arms all the way back and follow through.

Collisions: In an intense steal from first to second base, or second base to home, many skilled base runners attempt to topple over their opponent to get called safe by a field umpire. This collision is considered an inelastic collision because the defensive player tends to fall on top of the offensive player sliding into them when they then both move forward toward the base. The initial velocity of the defensive player is 0 or at rest, and the initial velocity of the base runner is some value.

...
Free Fall
Rachel Shea
Physics 131 Lab, QL
Hasbrouck 210
Sept. 21, 2014
Abstract
This experiment measures the study of motion by observing the force of gravity acting solely upon an object, and also measures reaction time. If an object is in free fall, the only force acting upon it is gravity. The object used in this experiment was a golf ball that provided some acceleration when dropped. A sensor positioned underneath a table recorded the golf ball’s pattern of motion, when dropped. The main objective of performing this experiment is to measure the velocity and position of the ball to eventually find the acceleration of free fall. A computer program called, DataStudio, was used to create a graph of position vs. time and a graph of velocity vs. time. The second part of the experiment involved randomly dropping a ruler and having your partner catch it to determine reaction time.
Questions
1. The parabolic curves open upward instead of downward because of the golf balls movement over time: where it is dropped from, to where it ends up. The ball begins close to the sensor, then drops to the ground, then bounces back up closer to sensor again, therefore the bounces correspond with the bottom curves of the parabola. If the data were collected from the floor then the curve would open downward. But because the sensor graphs the position from the sensor, the curve was upwards.
2.
-4572009207500
The slope of the velocity versus time graph physically...

...accident such as car crash, since the momentum changes instantly, the force becomes extremely great. Impulsive force is produced during the collision and it will cause severe damage to the car, and may also injure the passengers in it. 3 The passengers’ momentum can be stopped by objects in the car such as dashboard, side door, or windshield, however, it will cause serious injuries because the force would be very great. To increase the safety of the driver and the passengers, safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones, and etc. are introduced. Safety devices such as seatbelts, air bags, crumple zones and etc are designed to reduce the forces on the body if there is a collision. These safety devices are mostly made based on the physics principle of force and momentum, which is
This relationship says that if momentum is transferred over a longer period of time, the force involved is less. If the force of a collision can be reduced, then the chances that someone would get hurt in an accident are lower.4 Since momentum cannot be transformed to another form of energy, it is always conserved during any collision. The change in momentum is then a fixed quantity, and to lower the force, changes have to be made in the time of the collision.5 The time required for the car to stop in a collision have to be increased so that the forces that will impact the occupant will be lower, and they will be less likely to be hurt. If the time taken for the change...

...AP Physics Summer Assignment with
Dr. Crymes
Welcome to AP Physics B! It is a college level
physics course that is fun, interesting, and challenging
on a level you’ve not yet experienced. This assignment
will review all of the prerequisite knowledge expected of
you. There are 7 parts to this assignment. By taking the
time to review and understand all parts of this
assignment, you will help yourself acclimate to the rigor
and pacing of APPhysics. The summer assignment will
be “due” the first day of class. Good luck!
1. First off: send me your email address to jonathan_crymes@gwinnett.k12.ga.us so that I can make a class
list and hopefully send you some cool stuff over the summer. No extra work, I promise. Preferably
today, but no later than June 30, email me to introduce yourself. Please include the following
information with your email:
- First name, last name, last math class taken and grade received.
- What do you hope to get out of this course besides a good grade?
- Do you have any physics questions you’ve always wondered about like: what is a black hole? Is time
travel really possible? What is “relativity”? or “quantum physics”? or “if the Universe is filled with
stars, why is it dark in space but not on Earth?” or the classic “Did Einstein really fail his math class?”
2. Okay, remember how in chemistry they use symbols like “O” for oxygen and “H” for hydrogen and...

...CREDIT VALUE: 5
LEVEL: FOUNDATION
SYNOPSIS:
This Foundation Year Physics course is designed in such a way that sufficient information is provided to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts in Physics at the Foundation Level in the first semester. Upon completion of Physics I, you are required to carry on with the Physics II course and these courses are compulsory for the Engineering undergraduates.
Lecture : 5 hours/wk.
Tutorial : 2 hours/2wk
Laboratory Session : 2 hours/wk
COURSE MANAGEMENT
Semester: Trimester I - January 2014
Prerequisite: Physics – SPM / O-Levels
Lecture Schedule:
Lecturer Day Time Venue
Dr Beh Hoe Guan
(Coordinator)
PGS Monday 9.00 am – 11.00 am LR 08 (Block J)
Tuesday 11.00 am-1.00 pm LR 08 (Block J)
Friday 8:00 am – 9:00 am LR 08 (Block J)
Assoc. Prof. Dr Hasnah Mohd Zaid
CVE Monday 11.00 am – 1.00 pm LH2 (Block K)
Tuesday 2-00 pm-3.00 pm LH2 (Block K)
Thursday 8.00 am – 10.00 am LH1 (Block K)
Assoc. Prof. Dr Hasnah Mohd Zaid & Dr. Beh Hoe Guan
ME Monday 2.00 pm – 4.00 pm LR 01 (Block I) (Group 2),
LR07 (Block J)
(Group 1)
Wednesday 8.00am-10.00am
LR 15 (Block N)
(Group 2),
LR07 (Block J)
(Group 1)
Thursday 12.00 pm – 1.00 pm LR 10 (Block N) (Group 2),
LR07 (Block J)
(Group 1)
Prof Dr Norani Muti Mohamed
EE Monday 10.00 am – 12.00 pm LH3 (Block K)
Tuesday 11.00 am-12.00 pm LH1...

...UIC PHYSICS 105 Spring 2013 Practice Exam 1
UIC Physics 105
Midterm Practice Exam 1
Spring 2013
Best if used by February 17
PROBLEM Multiple Choice Short Problem 1 Short Problem 2 Short Problem 3 Short Problem 4 Short Problem 5 Short Problem 6 Total POINTS 40 10 10 10 10 10 10 100 SCORE
Page 1 of 11
UIC PHYSICS 105 Spring 2013 Practice Exam 1
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (2 points each) Clearly circle the letter of the best answer MCQ 1: The figure to the right represents the position of a particle as it travels along the x-axis. At what value of t is the velocity of the particle equal to zero? (A) 1 s Answer: velocity = slope of x vs t line (B) 2 s slope = 0 at t = 3 s (C) 3 s (D) 4 s
MCQ 2: A runner runs around a track consisting of two parallel lines 96 m long connected at the ends by two semicircles with a radius of 49 m. She completes one lap in 100 seconds. What is her average velocity? (A) 2.5 m/s ∆ (B) 5.0 m/s Answer: 0 m/s ∆ ∆ (C) 10 m/s (D) 0 m/s MCQ 3: You drop a very bouncy rubber ball. It falls, and then it hits the floor and bounces right back up to you. Which of the following represents the v vs. t graph for this motion?
Answer: Initially, the ball is falling down, so its velocity must be negative (if UP is positive). Its velocity is also increasing in magnitude as it falls. Once it bounces, it changes direction and then has a positive velocity, which is also decreasing as the...

...Elastic Collision between carts of equal mass:
Collision 1
Mass
(kg)
Initial Velocity
(m/s)
Final Velocity
(m/s)
Momentum Initial
(kg*m/s)
Momentum Final
(kg*m/s)
Red Cart
2.0
+ 50.0
0
0
0
Blue Cart
2.0
- 50.0
0
0
0
Elastic Collision between carts of unequal mass:
Collision 2
Mass
(kg)
Initial Velocity
(m/s)
Final Velocity
(m/s)
Momentum Initial
(kg*m/s)
Momentum Final
(kg*m/s)
Red Cart
1.0
+ 50.0
-33.33
50
-33.33
Blue Cart
2.0
- 50.0
66.66
-100
133.2
Inelastic Collision between carts of equal mass:
Collision 3
Mass
(kg)
Initial Velocity
(m/s)
Final Velocity
(m/s)
Momentum Initial
(kg*m/s)
Momentum Final
(kg*m/s)
Red Cart
2.0
+ 50.0
0
0
0
Blue Cart
2.0
- 50.0
0
0
0
Inelastic Collision between carts of unequal mass:
Collision 4
Mass
(kg)
Initial Velocity
(m/s)
Final Velocity
(m/s)
Momentum Initial
(kg*m/s)
Momentum Final
(kg*m/s)
Red Cart
1.0
+ 50.0
33.33
50
33.33
Blue Cart
2.0
- 50.0
-11.11
-100
-200
Calculations:
Collision
Total Momentum Initial
(kg*m/s)
Total Momentum Final
(kg*m/s)
Collision 1
0
0
Collision 2
-50
99.99
Collision 3
5
8
Collision 4
10
99.99
Questions and Conclusion:
1. Based on your observations of the 4 collisions, describe the physical difference between elastic and inelastic collisions.
in an elastic collision all kinetic energy of the bodies colliding before the collision remains after the collision and none...

...
Centro de investigación y desarrollo de educación bilingüe (CIDEB)
Physics
LAB REPORT
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
Teacher: Patrick Morris
Alejandra Castillejos Longoria
Group: 205
ID: 1663878
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment, was to prove the concept of the uniform linear motion by using an air track. With this, we demonstrated the impulse and change in momentum, the conservation of energy and the linear motion. We basically learnt to calculate the distance/time, acceleration/time, and velocity/time and graph it. The air track is also used to study collisions, both elastic and inelastic. Since there is very little energy lost through friction it is easy to demonstrate how momentum is conserved before and after a collision. According to the result, the velocity of the object in the air track was constant, it means that it didn’t have acceleration because it has constant velocity.
Introduction
First of all; we should understand what is linear motion. Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension. Uniform linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration. The Air Track can be used to obtain an accurate investigation of the laws of motion. A car or glider travels on a cushion of air provided which reduces friction. Since the friction is all but removed the car will be moving at a constant...

...Hoo Sze Yen
Form 4 Experiments
Physics SPM 2008
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS
1.1 PENDULUM
Hypothesis: The longer the length of a simple pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation. Aim of the experiment: To investigate how the period of a simple pendulum varies with its length. Variables: Manipulated: The length of the pendulum, l Responding: The period of the pendulum, T Constant: The mass of the pendulum bob, gravitational acceleration Apparatus/Materials: Pendulum bob, length of thread about 100 cm long, retort stand, stopwatch Setup:
Thread Length, l Retort stand
Pendulum
Procedure: 1. The thread is tied to the pendulum bob. The other end of the thread is tied around the arm of the retort stand so that it can swing freely. The length of the pendulum, l is measured to 80 cm as per the diagram.
Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics Page 1 of 52
Hoo Sze Yen
Form 4 Experiments
Physics SPM 2008
2. With the thread taut and the bob at rest, the bob is lifted at a small amplitude (of not more than 10°). Ensure that the pendulum swings in a single plane. 3. The time for ten complete oscillations of the pendulum is measured using the stopwatch. 4. Step 3 is repeated, and the average of both readings are calculated. 5. The period of oscillation, T is calculated using the average reading divided by the number of oscillations, i.e. 10. 6. T2 is calculated by squaring the value of T. 7....