An earthquake is sudden motion or trembling of the ground produced by the abrupt displacement of rock masses.
HOW DO THEY OCCUR?
The earth's outer shell is divided into seven major and some smaller plates which are constantly in a dynamic state, pushing against, pulling away from, or grinding past one another. Forces build up as the plates attempt to move in relation to each other. When the adhesions along the fault give way, stored energy is released in the form of earth tremors, volcanic activity etc.
* widespread hunger
* the government has to pay to rebuild everything
* Loss of housing
* Loss of industrial production
* Loss of commerce
* Loss of agriculture production
* (plant crops and harvest)
* Damage to infrastructure
* Disordered markets & distribution
* Interrupted transportation systems
* Breakdown of communication
Means of Mitigating against it’s effects
There are many ways to reduce earthquake damage. Possible actions include: * Developing construction techniques that are seismic resistant. * Conducting a program to introduce improved construction techniques to the building industry and the general public. * Determining which sites are safe for construction through analysis of the soil type and geological structure. * Instituting incentives to remove unsafe buildings and buildings on unsafe sites or, more probably, to upgrade their level of safety. * Instituting incentives to encourage future development on safer sites and safer methods of construction through: * Land use controls (zoning).
* Building Codes and standards and means of enforcing them. * Favourable taxation, loans, or subsidies to qualify buildings, methods and sites. * Land development incentives.
* Reducing possible damage from secondary effects by:
* Identifying potential landslide sites and restricting construction in those areas. * Installing devices that will keep breakages in electrical lines and gas mains from producing fires. * Verifying the capability of dams to resist earthquake forces, and upgrading as necessary.
Means of Mitigating
Once the risk posed by hurricanes is understood, specific mitigation measures can be taken to reduce the risk to communities, infrastructure, and economic activities. Human and economic losses can be greatly reduced through well-organized efforts to implement appropriate preventive measures, in public awareness and in issuing timely warnings. Thanks to these measures, countries in the region have experienced a drastic reduction in the number of deaths caused by hurricanes. Mitigation measures are most cost-effective when implemented as part of the original plan or construction of vulnerable structures. Typical examples are the application of building standards designed for hurricane-force winds, the avoidance of areas that can be affected by storm surge or flooding, and the planting of windbreaks to protect wind-sensitive crops. Retrofitting buildings or other projects to make them hurricane-resistant is more costly and sometimes impossible. Once a project is located in a flood-prone area, it may not be feasible to move it to safer ground. The overall record on mitigation of hurricane risk in the Caribbean is not very encouraging. Cases abound of new investments in the public or productive sectors that were exposed to significant hazard risk because of inappropriate design or location, and even of projects that were rebuilt in the same way on the same site after having been destroyed a first time. Other cases can be cited of schools and hospitals funded with bilateral aid that were built to design standards suitable for the donor country but incapable of resisting hurricane-strength winds prevalent in the recipient country. The tourism sector in the...